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Chapter 95 : Arboviruses

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Abstract:

This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of clinical diagnostic testing for most arboviruses as a general guide for clinical laboratory professionals. Arboviruses are transmitted to their vertebrate host via an arthropod vector. These unique viruses span seven distinct families of viruses, encompassing more than 500 viruses. The primary methods for arbovirus laboratory diagnosis are discussed. For many arboviruses, direct detection of virus by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) and/or virus isolation are the most specific and sensitive tests available. However not all patients present for diagnostic testing during their viremic phase and not all arboviruses are detectable by the current tests during the acute phase of infection. Detection of specific immunoglobulin M and G by various methodologies is sensitive but less specific than viral detection methods due to cross-reactive epitopes within some families of arboviruses, thus confirmatory testing is usually necessary. The most effective test for laboratory diagnosis of an arbovirus infection is determined by the days post onset of symptoms of the patient and can be simplified to a single algorithm for all arboviruses. Since many of these virus or immunoglobulin detection tests have been commercialized, an overview of current tests available is included. This chapter summarizes the current laboratory methods for the diagnosis of human-acquired arbovirus infections, their epidemiology and transmission, and clinical significance.

Citation: Hunsperger E. 2015. Arboviruses, p 1644-1659. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch95
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General laboratory testing algorithm for human serum specimens from suspected arbovirus infection. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch95.f1

Citation: Hunsperger E. 2015. Arboviruses, p 1644-1659. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch95
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Characteristics of arboviruses affecting humans

Citation: Hunsperger E. 2015. Arboviruses, p 1644-1659. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch95
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Commercial diagnostic tests available for arboviruses

Citation: Hunsperger E. 2015. Arboviruses, p 1644-1659. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch95

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