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Chapter 98 : Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus

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Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, formally designated human herpesvirus 1 and human herpesvirus 2, most commonly cause ulcerative orofacial or anogenital disease. Rare but more serious manifestations include herpes keratitis, encephalitis, and neonatal herpes. Primary HSV infection establishes latency within neurons of the trigeminal or dorsal root ganglia, from which HSV can reactivate causing recurrent viral shedding with or without symptoms. HSV asymptomatic shedding represents a major source of transmission. HSV can be cultured, but in recent years, DNA amplification techniques such as PCR have supplanted culture diagnosis in many labs. DNA amplification techniques are more sensitive than culture. This improved sensitivity is critical in certain settings such as HSV encephalitis, in which the viral load is very low. Several FDA-cleared amplification assays for HSV are now available, as are laboratory-developed tests from reference laboratories. Serologic testing can be useful in establishing serostatus in the absence of symptoms. Serologic tests should be type specific and target the HSV glycoprotein gG; other tests show poor discrimination between HSV-1 and HSV-2. Several FDA-cleared gG-based tests are available; these generally show good sensitivity and specificity relative to the gold standard Western blot. Finally, herpes B virus, also known as macacine (formerly cercopithecine) herpesvirus 1 or monkey B virus, can infect humans and cause lethal disease. Specimens suspected of containing herpes B virus should be handled carefully in consultation with CDC or the National B Virus Resource Laboratory.

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2015. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1687-1703. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch98
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FIGURE 1

(A) Normal human diploid fibroblasts. Magnification, ×400. (B) HSV-1 in human diploid fibroblasts. Magnification, ×400. (C) Normal mink lung. Magnification, ×100. (D) HSV-2 in mink lung cells. Magnification, ×100. (E) Normal Hep-2 cells. Magnification, ×400. (F) HSV-2 in Hep-2 cells. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch98.f1

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2015. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1687-1703. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch98
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(A) Toxicity in human diploid fibroblasts. Magnification, ×100. (B) HSV-2 direct fluorescent antibody confirmatory test. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch98.f2

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2015. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1687-1703. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch98
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

FDA-cleared molecular amplification tests for HSV

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2015. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1687-1703. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch98
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Monoclonal antibodies for HSV-1 and -2 detection, confirmation, and typing by immunofluorescence

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2015. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1687-1703. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch98
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Selected diagnostic tests for HSV

Citation: Jerome K, Morrow R. 2015. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus, p 1687-1703. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch98

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