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Chapter 17 : and Urinary Tract Infections

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and Urinary Tract Infections, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

is well known in clinical laboratories and microbiology survey courses as the species that swarms across agar surfaces, overtaking any other species present in the process. Urease production and robust swarming motility are the two hallmarks of this organism. This species can be identified as a Gram-negative rod that is motile, urease-positive, lactose-negative, indole-negative, and produces hydrogen sulfide ( ). It is a member of the same bacterial family () as .

Citation: Schaffer J, Pearson M. 2017. and Urinary Tract Infections, p 383-433. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0017-2013
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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

in urease-induced bladder stone. , One-quarter bladder of experimentally infected mouse (bar, 500 μm). , Higher magnification of the area indicated in panel A (bar, 100 μm). , Higher magnification of the area indicated in panel B with individual bacteria visible (bar, 5 μm). Modified from ( ), with permission.

Citation: Schaffer J, Pearson M. 2017. and Urinary Tract Infections, p 383-433. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0017-2013
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Adherence and motility genes are inversely regulated during UTI. Each line represents fold-change of a specific flagellar (left panel) or fimbrial (right panel) gene relative to mid-logarithmic phase culture . Genes in the operon are highly induced early during infection, but expression falls by 7 days post infection. Flagellar genes are initially repressed, but expression increases late in infection. Modified from ( ), with permission.

Citation: Schaffer J, Pearson M. 2017. and Urinary Tract Infections, p 383-433. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0017-2013
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Swarming colony of .

Citation: Schaffer J, Pearson M. 2017. and Urinary Tract Infections, p 383-433. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0017-2013
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

switches between swimming and swarming forms. On the left is a transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of broth-cultured, vegetative cells displaying peritrichous flagella. On the right is a TEM of differentiated swarm cells. Bundles of flagella are visible.

Citation: Schaffer J, Pearson M. 2017. and Urinary Tract Infections, p 383-433. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0017-2013
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

swarms across sections of latex catheter. Reproduced from ( ), with permission.

Citation: Schaffer J, Pearson M. 2017. and Urinary Tract Infections, p 383-433. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0017-2013
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Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Expression of MR/P fimbriae is phase-variable and induced during UTI. , Immunogold electron microscopy of wild-type HI4320 labeled with gold particles targeting the MrpH tip adhesin. The cell on the left is expressing MR/P fimbriae, and the cell on the right is not (bar, 500 nm). , The amount of MR/P fimbriae present positively correlates with murine bladder colonization. Data were obtained seven days post-inoculation. Modified from ( ), with permission.

Citation: Schaffer J, Pearson M. 2017. and Urinary Tract Infections, p 383-433. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0017-2013
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Figure 7

biofilm formation is MR/P-dependent. bacteria expressing GFP were grown on a cover glass in urine for 7 days. The resulting biofilm was imaged with confocal microscopy, and the 30 resulting z-stacks were stitched together to form the sagittal view. Wild-type forms thick, robust biofilms. MR/P L-ON forms dense, but thin, biofilms while MR/P L-OFF forms weak biofilms. Reprinted from ( ), with permission.

Citation: Schaffer J, Pearson M. 2017. and Urinary Tract Infections, p 383-433. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0017-2013
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Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Overexpression of and its paralogs results in distinct phenotypes. , Swarming assays of with an empty vector or expressing or an paralog. , Gram-stained bacteria from the edge of the swarm front (bar, 50 μm). Modified from ( ), with permission.

Citation: Schaffer J, Pearson M. 2017. and Urinary Tract Infections, p 383-433. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0017-2013
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Figure 9

iron chelation is Nrp and proteobactin dependent. , agar; and , solution chrome azurol S (CAS) assays of uropathogenic CFT073 and HI4320; a color change from blue to orange indicates iron chelation. In , supernatants from log-phase cultures grown in MOPS defined media either with 0.1 mM FeCl·6HO (black bars) or without supplementation (white bars) were concentrated 50-fold before being used in a liquid CAS assay ( supernatants were not concentrated). Single and mutants are not impaired in iron chelation, but the double mutant is. Reprinted from ( ), with permission.

Citation: Schaffer J, Pearson M. 2017. and Urinary Tract Infections, p 383-433. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0017-2013
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