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Chapter 10.1 : Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction

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Abstract:

The virology laboratory uses several diagnostic modalities, including culture, antigen and nucleic acid detection assays, cytohistopathology, and serologic methods, to aid the physician in the diagnosis of viral infections. The method of choice is influenced by several variables, including the nature of the suspected virus, the availability of test reagents, and the intended purpose of the assay (e.g., detecting active infection, assessing response to therapy). Since no single test modality can satisfy all needs, the laboratory scientist must carefully assess factors such as the patient population and setting as well as the needs and resources of the facility. Furthermore, knowledge of the natural history and pathogenesis of viral infections is essential for the optimal implementation of assays and the interpretation of results.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 10.1-1a

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Zoonotic viral diseases not typically associated with human-to-human transmission are included in Table10.1-2 . Abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; URI, upper respiratory infection; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HHV, human herpes virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus.

Members of the genus are now classified among five species, including polioviruses and human enteroviruses (HEV) A, B, C, and D. HEV-A includes coxsackieviruses A2 to A8, A10, A12, A14, and A16 and enterovirus 71. HEV-B includes coxsackieviruses A9 and B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. HEV-C includes coxsackieviruses A1, A11, A13, A15, A17 to A22, and A24. HEV-D includes enteroviruses 68 and 70. Coxsackievirus A23 has been shown to be echovirus type 9, echovirus type 10 has been reclassified as a reovirus, echovirus type 28 has been reclassified as rhinovirus type 1, echovirustype 34 is related to coxsackievirus A24 as a prime strain, and enterovirus 72 has been identified as HAV. Disease association has not been demonstrated for enterovirus type 69 or 73.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-1b

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Zoonotic viral diseases not typically associated with human-to-human transmission are included in Table10.1-2 . Abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; URI, upper respiratory infection; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HHV, human herpes virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus.

Members of the genus are now classified among five species, including polioviruses and human enteroviruses (HEV) A, B, C, and D. HEV-A includes coxsackieviruses A2 to A8, A10, A12, A14, and A16 and enterovirus 71. HEV-B includes coxsackieviruses A9 and B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. HEV-C includes coxsackieviruses A1, A11, A13, A15, A17 to A22, and A24. HEV-D includes enteroviruses 68 and 70. Coxsackievirus A23 has been shown to be echovirus type 9, echovirus type 10 has been reclassified as a reovirus, echovirus type 28 has been reclassified as rhinovirus type 1, echovirustype 34 is related to coxsackievirus A24 as a prime strain, and enterovirus 72 has been identified as HAV. Disease association has not been demonstrated for enterovirus type 69 or 73.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-1c

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Zoonotic viral diseases not typically associated with human-to-human transmission are included in Table10.1-2 . Abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; URI, upper respiratory infection; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HHV, human herpes virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus.

Members of the genus are now classified among five species, including polioviruses and human enteroviruses (HEV) A, B, C, and D. HEV-A includes coxsackieviruses A2 to A8, A10, A12, A14, and A16 and enterovirus 71. HEV-B includes coxsackieviruses A9 and B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. HEV-C includes coxsackieviruses A1, A11, A13, A15, A17 to A22, and A24. HEV-D includes enteroviruses 68 and 70. Coxsackievirus A23 has been shown to be echovirus type 9, echovirus type 10 has been reclassified as a reovirus, echovirus type 28 has been reclassified as rhinovirus type 1, echovirustype 34 is related to coxsackievirus A24 as a prime strain, and enterovirus 72 has been identified as HAV. Disease association has not been demonstrated for enterovirus type 69 or 73.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-1d

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Zoonotic viral diseases not typically associated with human-to-human transmission are included in Table10.1-2 . Abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; URI, upper respiratory infection; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HHV, human herpes virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus.

Members of the genus are now classified among five species, including polioviruses and human enteroviruses (HEV) A, B, C, and D. HEV-A includes coxsackieviruses A2 to A8, A10, A12, A14, and A16 and enterovirus 71. HEV-B includes coxsackieviruses A9 and B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. HEV-C includes coxsackieviruses A1, A11, A13, A15, A17 to A22, and A24. HEV-D includes enteroviruses 68 and 70. Coxsackievirus A23 has been shown to be echovirus type 9, echovirus type 10 has been reclassified as a reovirus, echovirus type 28 has been reclassified as rhinovirus type 1, echovirustype 34 is related to coxsackievirus A24 as a prime strain, and enterovirus 72 has been identified as HAV. Disease association has not been demonstrated for enterovirus type 69 or 73.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-1e

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Zoonotic viral diseases not typically associated with human-to-human transmission are included in Table10.1-2 . Abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; URI, upper respiratory infection; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HHV, human herpes virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus.

Members of the genus are now classified among five species, including polioviruses and human enteroviruses (HEV) A, B, C, and D. HEV-A includes coxsackieviruses A2 to A8, A10, A12, A14, and A16 and enterovirus 71. HEV-B includes coxsackieviruses A9 and B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. HEV-C includes coxsackieviruses A1, A11, A13, A15, A17 to A22, and A24. HEV-D includes enteroviruses 68 and 70. Coxsackievirus A23 has been shown to be echovirus type 9, echovirus type 10 has been reclassified as a reovirus, echovirus type 28 has been reclassified as rhinovirus type 1, echovirustype 34 is related to coxsackievirus A24 as a prime strain, and enterovirus 72 has been identified as HAV. Disease association has not been demonstrated for enterovirus type 69 or 73.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-2a

Zoonotic viruses associated with human infection

Several zoonotic viruses are categorized as BSL 3 or BSL 4 agents (http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl4/bmbl4toc.htm) and/or are designated as select agents (http://www.cdc.gov.od/sap/docs/salist.pdf). Laboratory testing for these agents is not typically available in the routine diagnostic virology laboratory. Abbreviations: HF, hemorrhagic fever; VEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis; URI, upper respiratory infection.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-2b

Zoonotic viruses associated with human infection

Several zoonotic viruses are categorized as BSL 3 or BSL 4 agents (http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl4/bmbl4toc.htm) and/or are designated as select agents (http://www.cdc.gov.od/sap/docs/salist.pdf). Laboratory testing for these agents is not typically available in the routine diagnostic virology laboratory. Abbreviations: HF, hemorrhagic fever; VEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis; URI, upper respiratory infection.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1

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