1887

Chapter 10.1 : Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817435/9781555815271_Chap10_1-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817435/9781555815271_Chap10_1-2.gif

Abstract:

The virology laboratory uses several diagnostic modalities, including culture, antigen and nucleic acid detection assays, cytohistopathology, and serologic methods, to aid the physician in the diagnosis of viral infections. The method of choice is influenced by several variables, including the nature of the suspected virus, the availability of test reagents, and the intended purpose of the assay (e.g., detecting active infection, assessing response to therapy). Since no single test modality can satisfy all needs, the laboratory scientist must carefully assess factors such as the patient population and setting as well as the needs and resources of the facility. Furthermore, knowledge of the natural history and pathogenesis of viral infections is essential for the optimal implementation of assays and the interpretation of results.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817435.chap10.1
1. Allander, T.,, M. T. Tammi,, M. Eriksson,, A. Bjerkner,, A. Tiveljung-Lindell,, and B. Andersson. 2005. Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102: 12891 12896.
2. Barton, L. L. 1996. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: a neglected central nervous system pathogen. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22: 197.
3. Calisher, C. H. 1994. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7: 89 116.
4. Centers for Disease Control. 1987. B virus infection in humans—Pensacola, Florida. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 36: 289290, 295296.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Fatal Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection following a mucocutaneous exposure and interim recommendations for worker protection. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47: 10731076, 1083.
6. Cesarman, E.,, Y. Chang,, P. S. Moore,, J. W. Said,, and D. M. Knowles. 1995. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-related body-cavity-based lymphomas. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 1186 1191.
7. Chang, Y.,, E. Cesarman,, M. S. Pessin,, F. Lee,, J. Culpepper,, D. M. Knowles,, and P. S. Moore. 1994. Identification of herpesviruslike DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Science 266: 1865 1869.
8. Cone, R. W.,, M. L. Huang,, L. Corey,, J. Zeh,, R. Ashley,, and R. Bowden. 1999. Human herpesvirus 6 infections after marrow transplantation: clinical and virologic manifestations. J. Infect. Dis. 179: 311 318.
8a.. Dalakas, M. C.,, J. L. Sever,, D. L. Madden,, N. M. Papadopoulos,, I. C. Shekarchi,, P. Albrecht,, and A. Krezlewicz. 1984. Late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy: clinical, virologic, and immunologic studies. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6: S562 S567.
9. Falsey, A. R.,, and E. E. Walsh. 2000. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13: 371 384.
9a.. Fouchier, R. A.,, N. G. Hartwig,, T. M. Bestebroer,, B. Niemeyer,, J. C. de Jong,, J. H. Simon,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2004. A previously undescribed coronavirus associated with respiratory disease in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 6212 6216.
9b.. Hamelin, M. E.,, and G. Boivin. 2005. Human metapneumovirus: a ubiquitous and longstanding respiratory pathogen. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24: S203 S207.
9c.. Harma, M.,, K. Hockerstedt,, O. Lyytikainen,, and I. Lautenschlager. 2006. HHV-6 and HHV-7 antigenemia related to CMV infection after liver transplantation. J. Med. Virol. 78: 800 805.
10.. Hierholzer, J. C. 1992. Adenoviruses in the immunocompromised host. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 5: 262 274.
11.. Huang, Y. Q.,, J. J. Li,, M. H. Kaplan,, B. Poiesz,, E. Katabira,, W. C. Zhang,, D. Feiner,, and A. E. Friedman-Kien. 1995. Human herpesvirus-like nucleic acid in various forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 345: 759 761.
11a.. Hussaini, S. H.,, S. J. Skidmore,, P. Richardson,, L. M. Sherratt,, B. T. Cooper,, and J. G. O’Grady. 1997. Severe hepatitis E infection during pregnancy. J. Viral Hepat. 4: 51 54.
12.. Ishiguro, N.,, S. Yamada,, T. Takahashi,, Y. Takahashi,, T. Okuno,, and K. Yamanishi. 1990. Meningo-encephalitis associated with HHV-6 related exanthem subitum. Acta Pediatr. Scand. 79: 987 989.
12a.. Jubelt, B.,, and J. C. Agre. 2000. Characteristics and management of postpolio syndrome. JAMA 284: 412 414.
12b.. Kahn, J. S. 2006. The widening scope of coronaviruses. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 18: 42 47.
13.. Khan, A. S.,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and C. J. Peters. 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Lancet 347: 739 741.
14.. Koutsky, L. A.,, D. A. Galloway,, and K. K. Holmes. 1988. Epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection. Epidemiol. Rev. 10: 122 163.
14a.. Loens, K.,, H. Goossens,, C. de Laat,, H. Foolen,, P. Oudshoorn,, S. Pattyn,, P. Sillekens,, and M. Ieven. 2006. Detection of rhinoviruses by tissue culture and two independent amplification techniques, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and reverse transcription-PCR, in children with acute respiratory infections during a winter season. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 166 171.
15.. McCullers, J. A.,, F. D. Lakerman,, and R. J. Whitley. 1995. Human herpesvirus 6 is associated with focal encephalitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 571 576.
16.. Schalling, M.,, M. Ekman,, E. E. Kaaya,, A. Linde,, and P. Biberfeld. 1995. A role for a new herpes virus (KSHV) in different forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Nat. Med. 1: 707 708.
17.. Secchiero, P.,, D. R. Carrigan,, Y. Asano,, L. Benedetti,, R. W. Crowley,, A. L. Komaroff,, R. C. Gallo,, and P. Lusso. 1995. Detection of HHV-6 in plasma of children with primary infection and immunosuppressed patients by polymerase chain reaction. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 273 280.
18. Singh, N.,, R. Carrigan,, T. Gayowsky,, and I. R. Marino. 1997. Human herpesvirus-6 infection in liver transplant recipients: documentation of pathogenicity. Transplantation 64: 674 678.
19. Soulier, J.,, L. Grollet,, E. Oksenhendler,, P. Cacoub,, D. Cazals-Hatem,, P. Babinet,, M. F. d’Agay,, J. P. Clauvel,, M. Raphael,, L. Degos, et al. 1995. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in multicentric Castleman’s disease. Blood 86: 1276 1280.
19a.. van den Hoogen, B. G.,, J. C. de Jong,, J. Groen,, T. Kuiken,, R. de Groot,, R. A. Fouchier,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2001. A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease. Nat. Med. 7: 719 724.
19b.. van der Hoek, L.,, K. Pyrc,, M. F. Jebbink,, W. Vermeulen-Oost,, R. J. Berkhout,, K. C. Wolthers, et al. 2004. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat. Med. 10: 368 371.
20. Walboomers, J. M.,, M. V. Jacobs,, M. M. Manos,, F. X. Bosch,, J. A. Kummer,, K. V. Shah,, P. J. Snijders,, J. Peto,, C. J. Meijer,, and N. Munoz. 1999. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J. Pathol. 189: 12 19.
21. Wang, L.,, B. H. Harcourt,, M. Yu,, A. Tamin,, P. A. Rota,, W. J. Bellini,, and B. T. Eaton. 2001. Molecular biology of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect. 3: 279 287.
21a.. Wang, L.,, and H. Zhuang. 2004. Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in vaccine research. World J. Gastroenterol. 10: 2157 2162.
21b.. Woo, P. C. Y.,, S. K. P. Lau,, C.-M. Chu,, K.-H. Chan,, H.-W. Tsoi,, Y. Huang, et al. 2005. Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. J. Virol. 79: 884 895.
22. Yamanishi, K.,, T. Okuno,, K. Shiraki,, M. Takahashi,, T. Kondo,, Y. Asano,, and T. Kurata. 1988. Identification of human herpesvirus-6 as a causal agent for exanthem subitum. Lancet i: 1065 1067.
23. Hsiung, G. D.,, C. K. Y. Fong,, and M. L. Landry. 1994. Hsiung’s Diagnostic Virology, 4th ed. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn..
24. Knipe, D. M.,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (eds.). 2001. Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
25. Murray, P. R.,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.). 2003. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
26. Specter, S.,, R. L. Hodinka,, and S. A. Young. 2000. Clinical Virology Manual, 3rd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
27. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services-Public Health Service. 1991. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 4th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
40. Hsiung, G. D.,, C. K. Y. Fong,,and M. L. Landry. 1994. Hsiung's Diagnostic Virology, 4th ed. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.
41. Knipe, D. M.,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (eds.). 2001. Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
42. Murray, P. R.,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.). 2003. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
43. Specter, S.,, R. L. Hodinka,, and S. A. Young. 2000. Clinical Virology Manual, 3rd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
44. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services-Public Health Service. 1991. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 4th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 10.1-1a

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Zoonotic viral diseases not typically associated with human-to-human transmission are included in Table10.1-2 . Abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; URI, upper respiratory infection; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HHV, human herpes virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus.

Members of the genus are now classified among five species, including polioviruses and human enteroviruses (HEV) A, B, C, and D. HEV-A includes coxsackieviruses A2 to A8, A10, A12, A14, and A16 and enterovirus 71. HEV-B includes coxsackieviruses A9 and B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. HEV-C includes coxsackieviruses A1, A11, A13, A15, A17 to A22, and A24. HEV-D includes enteroviruses 68 and 70. Coxsackievirus A23 has been shown to be echovirus type 9, echovirus type 10 has been reclassified as a reovirus, echovirus type 28 has been reclassified as rhinovirus type 1, echovirustype 34 is related to coxsackievirus A24 as a prime strain, and enterovirus 72 has been identified as HAV. Disease association has not been demonstrated for enterovirus type 69 or 73.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-1b

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Zoonotic viral diseases not typically associated with human-to-human transmission are included in Table10.1-2 . Abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; URI, upper respiratory infection; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HHV, human herpes virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus.

Members of the genus are now classified among five species, including polioviruses and human enteroviruses (HEV) A, B, C, and D. HEV-A includes coxsackieviruses A2 to A8, A10, A12, A14, and A16 and enterovirus 71. HEV-B includes coxsackieviruses A9 and B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. HEV-C includes coxsackieviruses A1, A11, A13, A15, A17 to A22, and A24. HEV-D includes enteroviruses 68 and 70. Coxsackievirus A23 has been shown to be echovirus type 9, echovirus type 10 has been reclassified as a reovirus, echovirus type 28 has been reclassified as rhinovirus type 1, echovirustype 34 is related to coxsackievirus A24 as a prime strain, and enterovirus 72 has been identified as HAV. Disease association has not been demonstrated for enterovirus type 69 or 73.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-1c

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Zoonotic viral diseases not typically associated with human-to-human transmission are included in Table10.1-2 . Abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; URI, upper respiratory infection; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HHV, human herpes virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus.

Members of the genus are now classified among five species, including polioviruses and human enteroviruses (HEV) A, B, C, and D. HEV-A includes coxsackieviruses A2 to A8, A10, A12, A14, and A16 and enterovirus 71. HEV-B includes coxsackieviruses A9 and B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. HEV-C includes coxsackieviruses A1, A11, A13, A15, A17 to A22, and A24. HEV-D includes enteroviruses 68 and 70. Coxsackievirus A23 has been shown to be echovirus type 9, echovirus type 10 has been reclassified as a reovirus, echovirus type 28 has been reclassified as rhinovirus type 1, echovirustype 34 is related to coxsackievirus A24 as a prime strain, and enterovirus 72 has been identified as HAV. Disease association has not been demonstrated for enterovirus type 69 or 73.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-1d

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Zoonotic viral diseases not typically associated with human-to-human transmission are included in Table10.1-2 . Abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; URI, upper respiratory infection; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HHV, human herpes virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus.

Members of the genus are now classified among five species, including polioviruses and human enteroviruses (HEV) A, B, C, and D. HEV-A includes coxsackieviruses A2 to A8, A10, A12, A14, and A16 and enterovirus 71. HEV-B includes coxsackieviruses A9 and B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. HEV-C includes coxsackieviruses A1, A11, A13, A15, A17 to A22, and A24. HEV-D includes enteroviruses 68 and 70. Coxsackievirus A23 has been shown to be echovirus type 9, echovirus type 10 has been reclassified as a reovirus, echovirus type 28 has been reclassified as rhinovirus type 1, echovirustype 34 is related to coxsackievirus A24 as a prime strain, and enterovirus 72 has been identified as HAV. Disease association has not been demonstrated for enterovirus type 69 or 73.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-1e

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Zoonotic viral diseases not typically associated with human-to-human transmission are included in Table10.1-2 . Abbreviations: CNS, central nervous system; URI, upper respiratory infection; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; HAV, hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HDV, hepatitis D virus; HEV, hepatitis E virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; HHV, human herpes virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus.

Members of the genus are now classified among five species, including polioviruses and human enteroviruses (HEV) A, B, C, and D. HEV-A includes coxsackieviruses A2 to A8, A10, A12, A14, and A16 and enterovirus 71. HEV-B includes coxsackieviruses A9 and B1 to B6; echoviruses 1 to 7, 9, 11 to 21, 24 to 27, and 29 to 33; and enteroviruses 69 and 73. HEV-C includes coxsackieviruses A1, A11, A13, A15, A17 to A22, and A24. HEV-D includes enteroviruses 68 and 70. Coxsackievirus A23 has been shown to be echovirus type 9, echovirus type 10 has been reclassified as a reovirus, echovirus type 28 has been reclassified as rhinovirus type 1, echovirustype 34 is related to coxsackievirus A24 as a prime strain, and enterovirus 72 has been identified as HAV. Disease association has not been demonstrated for enterovirus type 69 or 73.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-2a

Zoonotic viruses associated with human infection

Several zoonotic viruses are categorized as BSL 3 or BSL 4 agents (http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl4/bmbl4toc.htm) and/or are designated as select agents (http://www.cdc.gov.od/sap/docs/salist.pdf). Laboratory testing for these agents is not typically available in the routine diagnostic virology laboratory. Abbreviations: HF, hemorrhagic fever; VEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis; URI, upper respiratory infection.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1-2b

Zoonotic viruses associated with human infection

Several zoonotic viruses are categorized as BSL 3 or BSL 4 agents (http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl4/bmbl4toc.htm) and/or are designated as select agents (http://www.cdc.gov.od/sap/docs/salist.pdf). Laboratory testing for these agents is not typically available in the routine diagnostic virology laboratory. Abbreviations: HF, hemorrhagic fever; VEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis; URI, upper respiratory infection.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10-19. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error