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Chapter 10.7 : Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples

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Abstract:

Commercially available assays for diagnostic testing are available for several viral agents and for ( Table 10.7-1 ) and are discussed in section 12.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 104-113. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.7
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Figures

Image of Figure 10.7-1
Figure 10.7-1

Preparation of aspirates and fluids for IF.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 104-113. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.7
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Image of Figure 10.7-2
Figure 10.7-2

Preparation of swabs, scrapings, and impression smears for IF.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 104-113. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.7
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Image of Figure 10.7-3
Figure 10.7-3

Leukocyte preparation with several cells showing intense CMV pp65 staining and a few cells (arrows) showing weak speckled nuclear staining (×400). Provided by Chemicon International.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 104-113. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.7
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Image of Figure 10.7-4
Figure 10.7-4

(A) Kidney tubule with characteristic “owl eye” inclusion of CMV (arrow). Courtesy of W. L. Drew. (B) Giemsa stain of conjunctival cells showing cytoplasmic inclusion (arrow) of Courtesy of W. L. Drew. (C) Cytologic examination (Tzanck smear) of scrapings from the base of an ulcerative HSV lesion showing multinucleated giant cells. Courtesy of W. L. Drew. (D) Large eosinophilic inclusions fill the cytoplasms of several infected basal cells (molluscum bodies). Courtesy of W. L. Drew.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 104-113. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.7
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817435.chap10.7
1. Biel, S. S.,, and H. R. Gelderblom. 1999. Diagnostic electron microscopy is still a timely and rewarding method. J. Clin. Virol. 13:105119.
2.Centers for Disease Control. 1991. Falsepositive results with the use of chlamydia tests in the evaluation of suspected sexual abuse. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 39:932935.
3. Doane, F. W.,, and N. Anderson. 1987. Electron Microscopy in Diagnostic Virology: Practical Guide and Atlas. Cambridge University Press, New York, N.Y..
4. Fong, C. K. Y., 1994. Electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy, p. 99107. In G. D. Hsiung,, C. K. Y. Fong,, and M. L. Landry (ed.), Hsiung’s Diagnostic Virology, 4th ed. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn..
5. Goudswaard, F.,, L. Sabbe,, and C. van Belzen. 1989. Interference by gram-negative bacteriain the enzyme immunoassay for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Infect. Dis. 18: 9496.
6. Hammerschlag, M. R.,, P. J. Rettig,, and M. E. Shields. 1988. False positive results with the use of chlamydia antigen detection tests in the evaluation of suspected sexual abuse in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7:1114.
7. Hsiung, G. D., 1994. Histocytochemical staining, p. 8390. In G. D. Hsiung,, C. K. Y. Fong,, and M. L. Landry (ed.), Hsiung’s Diagnostic Virology, 4th ed. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn..
8. Matthey, S.,, D. Nicholson,, S. Ruhs,, B. Aiden,, M. Knock,, K. Schultz,, and A. Schmuecker. 1992. Rapid detection of respiratory viruses by shell vial culture and direct staining by using pooled and individual monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:540544.
9. Miller, S. E. 1986. Detection and identification of viruses by electron microscopy. J. Electron. Microsc. Technol. 4:265301.
10. Payne, W. J., Jr.,, D. L. Marshall,, R. K. Shockley,, and W. J. Martin. 1988. Clinical laboratory applications of monoclonal antibodies. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 1:313329.
11. Poder, K.,, N. Sanchez,, P. M. Robin,, M. McHugh,, and M. R. Hammerschlag. 1989. Lack of specificity of Chlamydiazyme for detection of vaginal chlamydial infection in prepubertal girls. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 8:358360.
12. Pratt, B. C.,, I. A. Tait,, and W. L. Anyaegbunam. 1989. Rectal carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis in women. J. Clin. Pathol. 42:13091310.
13. Stout, C.,, M. D. Murphy,, S. Lawrence,, and S. Julian. 1989. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody pool for rapid diagnosis of respiratory viral infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:448452.

Tables

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Table 10.7-1

Direct specimen testing: viral and chlamydial infections

Abbreviations: OIA, optic immunoassay; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HIV-1, human immunodeficiencyvirus type 1; HPV, human papillomavirus.

Refer to kit manufacturer regarding specimens for which the reagent can be used and specific instructionsregarding collection, transport, and storage of specimens.

Anti-chlamydial LPS MAbs may cross-react with bacteria present in vaginal, rectal, and oral specimens, and false-positive results have been reported with EIA testing of vaginal specimens from children ( ) and of rectal specimens from adults ( ) and children ( ) and with direct IF staining of rectal smears from adults and children ( ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 104-113. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.7
Generic image for table
Table 10.7-2a

Troubleshooting IF problems

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 104-113. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.7
Generic image for table
Table 10.7-2b

Troubleshooting IF problems

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 104-113. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.7
Generic image for table
Table 10.7-3

Inclusion morphology

Abbreviations: VZV, varicella-zoster virus; HPV, human papillomavirus.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 104-113. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch10.7

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