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Chapter 11.1 : Immunology Introduction

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Abstract:

Advances in the clinical immunology laboratory have continued at a rapid pace since the previous edition of CMPH. The goal of this section is to highlight procedures for major assays that are called upon in the clinical microbiology and immunology laboratories and to assist those laboratory directors to conduct the highest quality of laboratory testing. In this section it is impossible to cover all aspects of immunology laboratory testing, as was noted in the previous edition. We therefore again provide Table 11.1.2 from ( ), which provides the reader with generic descriptions of assays used in the clinical immunology laboratory. Table 11.1.3 is also provided again as a summary of those assays that are emerging from research laboratories; these may find their way into the clinical immunology laboratory with time.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817435.chap11.1
1. Detrick, B.,, R. G. Hamilton,, and J. D. Folds (ed.). 2006. Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Janda, W. M., 1998. Immunology, p. 561577. In H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Essential Procedures for Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1a

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1b

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1c

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1d

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1e

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1f

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1g

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1h

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1i

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1j

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1k

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1l

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1m

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1n

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1o

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.2-1p

Generic description of immunologic assays used in the serologic diagnosis of infectious diseases,

Reproduced from . 1998. Immunology, p. 561–577. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), . ASM Press, Washington, DC.

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IgG, immunoglobulin G; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; BCYE, buffered charcoal-yeast extract; IFA, indirect fluorescent antibody; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CF, complement fixation; CH, 50% hemolytic complement; HAU, hemagglutinating unit(s); CIE, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.3-1a

Emerging immunological assays using flow cytometry

Abbreviations: PI, propidium iodide; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated duTP-biotin nick end labeling; MAb, monoclonal antibody; PS, phosphotidylserine; 7-AAD, 7-aminoactinomycin D; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; FACS, fluorescenceactivated cell sorter; PE, phycoerythrin; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; ACD, acid citrate dextrose; FSC, forward scatter; SSC, side scatter; TdT, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase; DCs, dendritic cells; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.3-1b

Emerging immunological assays using flow cytometry

Abbreviations: PI, propidium iodide; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated duTP-biotin nick end labeling; MAb, monoclonal antibody; PS, phosphotidylserine; 7-AAD, 7-aminoactinomycin D; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; FACS, fluorescenceactivated cell sorter; PE, phycoerythrin; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; ACD, acid citrate dextrose; FSC, forward scatter; SSC, side scatter; TdT, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase; DCs, dendritic cells; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.3-1c

Emerging immunological assays using flow cytometry

Abbreviations: PI, propidium iodide; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated duTP-biotin nick end labeling; MAb, monoclonal antibody; PS, phosphotidylserine; 7-AAD, 7-aminoactinomycin D; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; FACS, fluorescenceactivated cell sorter; PE, phycoerythrin; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; ACD, acid citrate dextrose; FSC, forward scatter; SSC, side scatter; TdT, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase; DCs, dendritic cells; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1
Generic image for table
Table 11.1.3-1d

Emerging immunological assays using flow cytometry

Abbreviations: PI, propidium iodide; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated duTP-biotin nick end labeling; MAb, monoclonal antibody; PS, phosphotidylserine; 7-AAD, 7-aminoactinomycin D; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; FACS, fluorescenceactivated cell sorter; PE, phycoerythrin; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; ACD, acid citrate dextrose; FSC, forward scatter; SSC, side scatter; TdT, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase; DCs, dendritic cells; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Immunology Introduction, p 116-136. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch11.1

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