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Chapter 13.16 : Phenotypic Characterization of Organisms for Epidemiologic Purposes

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Phenotypic Characterization of Organisms for Epidemiologic Purposes, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Numerous methods exist for characterizing microorganisms beyond the species level. Methods include but are not limited to determining antimicrobial resistance patterns, biotyping, serotyping, and using molecular techniques such as plasmid analysis and restriction enzyme analysis of plasmid or chromosomal DNA. These methods are used when it is necessary to separate organisms more finely for clinical and epidemiologic purposes. In order to have wide application, laboratory techniques for typing organisms in the clinical microbiology laboratory must be easy to perform with readily available reagents and materials. A valid typing technique must be reproducible, standardized, and stable over time. It must be sensitive enough to distinguish epidemiologically related and unrelated strains. No single method of strain subtype delineation has proved to be ideal. Most often, a combination of several systems of characterization is used to evaluate a group of organisms. The fundamental principle in the application of any technique to the typing of organisms is that the entire group must be tested as a batch. All organisms must be run in parallel on the same day by the same laboratory and the same personnel with identical reagents. ( Appendix 13.16-1 on p. 13.16.5.1 for further discussion.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Phenotypic Characterization of Organisms for Epidemiologic Purposes, p 523-530. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch13.16
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Figures

Image of Figure 13.16.2-1
Figure 13.16.2-1

Dienes typing: negative (left) and positive (right) tests.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Phenotypic Characterization of Organisms for Epidemiologic Purposes, p 523-530. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch13.16
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Image of Figure 13.16.4-1
Figure 13.16.4-1

Synergistic hemolysis test: positive tests, left and upper right; weak positive test, lower right; negative test, center right.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Phenotypic Characterization of Organisms for Epidemiologic Purposes, p 523-530. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch13.16
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Download as Powerpoint

References

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1. Hickman, F. W.,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1976. Differentiation of Proteus mirabilis by bacteriophage typing and the Dienes reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 3:350358.
2. Tracy, O.,, and E. J. Thomson. 1972. An evaluation of three methods of typing organisms of the genus Proteus. J. Clin. Pathol. 25:6972.
3. Christensen, G. D.,, J. T. Parisi,, A. L. Bisno,, W. A. Simpson,, and E. H. Beachey. 1983. Characterization of clinically significant strains of coagulase- negative staphylococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:258269.
4. Christensen, G. D.,, W. A. Simpson,, A. L. Bisno,, and E. H. Beachey. 1982. Adherence of slime-producing strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to smooth surfaces. Infect. Immun. 37:318326.
5. Bergan, T.,, and J. R. Norris. 1978. Methods in Microbiology, vol. 10. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY.
6. Brokopp, C. D.,, and J. J. Farmer,. 1979. Typing methods for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, p. 89133. In R. G. Doggett (ed.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY.
7. Hebert, G. A.,, R. C. Cooksey,, N. C. Clark,, B. C. Hill,, W. R. Jarvis,, and C. Thornsberry. 1988. Biotyping coagulase-negative staphylococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:19501956.
8. Hebert, G. A.,, and G. A. Hancock. 1985. Synergistic hemolysis exhibited by species of staphylococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22:409415.
9. Pitt, T. L. 1988. Epidemiological typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2:238247.

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