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Chapter 13.8 : Culture of Peritoneal Dialysis Fluid

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Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Culture of Peritoneal Dialysis Fluid, p 471-477. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch13.8
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References

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1. Alfa, M. J.,, P. Degagne,, N. Olson,, and G. K. Harding. 1997. Improved detection of bacterial growth in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis effluent by use of BacT/Alert FAN bottles. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 862 866.
2. Forbes, B. A.,, P. A. Frymore,, R. T. Kopecky,, J. M. Wojtaszek,, and D. J. Pettit. 1988. Evaluation of lysis-centrifugation system for culturing dialysates from continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients with peritonitis. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 11: 176 179.
3. Fried, L.,, and B. Piraino,. 2000. Peritonitis, p. 545 564. In R. Gokal,, R. Khanna,, R. Kredeit,, and K. Nolph (ed.), Textbook of Peritoneal Dialysis, 2nd ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.
4. Hausmann, M. J.,, R. Yulzari,, E. Lewis,, Y. Saisky,, and A. Douvdevani. 2000. Gel-clot LAL assay in the initial management of peritoneal dialysis patients with peritonitis: a retrospective study. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 15: 680 683.
5. Keane, W. F.,, G. R. Bailie,, E. Boeschoten,, R. Gokal,, T. A. Golper,, C. J. Holmes,, Y. Kawaguchi,, B. Piraino,, M. Riella,, and S. Vas. 2000. Adult peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis treatment recommendations: 2000 update. Perit. Dial. Int. 20: 396 411.
6. Lerner, G. R.,, B. A. Warady,, E. K. Sullivan,, and S. R. Alexander. 1999. Chronic dialysis in children and adolescents. The 1996 annual report of the North American Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Pediatr. Nephrol. 13: 404 417.
7. Males, B. M.,, J. J. Walshe,, and D. Amsterdam. 1987. Laboratory indices of clinical peritonitis: total leukocyte count, microscopy, and microbiologic culture of peritoneal dialysis effluent. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 2367 2371.
8. Males, B. M.,, J. J. Walshe,, L. Garringer,, D. Koscinski,, and D. Amsterdam. 1986. Addi- Chek filtration, BACTEC, and 10-ml culture methods for recovery of microorganisms from dialysis effluent during episodes of peritonitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 350 353.
9. McCartney, A.,, J. N. Brunton,, and G. L. Warwick. 1989. Limulus ameobocyte lysate (LAL) assay and rapid detection of Gram negative bacterial peritonitis in patients receiving CAPD. J. Clin. Pathol. 42: 1115. (Letter.).
10. Piraino, B.,, G. R. Bailie,, J. Bernardini,, E. Boeschoten,, A. Gupta,, C. J. Holmes,, E. J. Kuijper,, P. K. Li,, W. C. Lye,, S. Mujais,, D. L. Paterson,, M. P. Fontan,, A. Ramos,, F. Schaefer,, and L. Uttley. 2005. ISPD Ad Hoc Advisory Committee. Peritoneal dialysisrelated infections recommendations: 2005 update. Perit. Dial. Int. 25: 107 131.
11. Ryan, S.,, and S. Fessia. 1987. Improved methods for recovery of peritonitis-causing organisms from peritoneal dialysate. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 383 384.
12. Saubolle, M. A.,, D. L. Sewell,, M. D. Holland,, and T. A. Golper. 1989. Comparison of two commercial broth-culture systems for microbial detection in dialysates of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12: 457 461.
13. Schaefer, F.,, G. Klaus,, D. E. Mueller-Weifel,, and O. Mehls. 1999. Current practice of peritoneal dialysis: results of a longitudinal survey. Mid European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group (MEPPS). Perit. Dial. Int. 19( Suppl. 2): S445 S449.
14. Tranæus, A., 2000. Peritonitis in paediatric continuous peritoneal dialysis, p. 301 347. In R. N. Fine,, S. R. Alexander,, and B. A. Warady (ed.), CAPD/CCPD in Children, 2nd ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.
15. U.S. Renal Data Systems. 2001. USRDS 2000 Annual Data Report. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD.
16. Van Caseele, P.,, M. J. Alfaa,, and G. K. Harding. 2000. Assessment of the FAN aerobic bottle for culture of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluid using the BacT/Alert system. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 36: 85 90.
17. Vas, S. I. 1994. Renaissance of tuberculosis in the 1990’s: lessons for the nephrologist. Perit. Dial. Int. 14: 209 214.
18. Warady, B. A.,, E. K. Sullivan,, and S. R. Alexander. 1996. Lessons from the peritoneal dialysis patient database: a report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Kidney Int. Suppl. 53: S68 S71.
19. Warady, B. A.,, D. Herbert,, E. K. Sullivan,, S. R. Alexander,, and A. Tejani. 1997. Renal transplantation, chronic dialysis, and chronic renal insufficiency in children and adolescents. The 1995 annual report of the North American Pediatric Transplant Cooperative Study. Pediatr. Nephrol. 11: 49 64.
20. Warady, B. A.,, F. Schaefer,, M. Holloway,, S. Alexander,, M. Kandert,, B. Piraino,, I. Salusky,, A. Tranæus,, J. Divo,, M. Honda,, S. Mujais,, and E. Verrina. 2000. Consensus guidelines for the treatment of peritonitis in pediatric patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. Perit. Dial. Int. 20: 610 624.
21. Woods, G. L.,, and J. A. Washington II. 1987. Comparison of methods for processing dialysate in suspected continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7: 155 157.
1. Alfa, M. J.,, P. Degagne,, N. Olson,, and G. K. Harding. 1997. Improved detection of bacterial growth in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis effluent by use of BacT/Alert FAN bottles. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 862 866.
2. Buggy, B. P. 1986. Culture methods for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 8: 12 14.
3. Dawson, M. S.,, A. M. Harford,, B. K. Garner,, D. A. Sica,, D. M. landwehr,, and H. P. Dalton. 1985. Total volume culture technique for the isolation of microorganisms from continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients with peritonitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 391 394.
4. Forbes, B. A.,, P. A. Frymore,, R. T. Kopecky,, J. M. Wojtaszek,, and D. J. Pettit. 1988. Evaluation of lysis-centrifugation system for culturing dialysates from continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients with peritonitis. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 11: 176 179.
5. Ludlam, H. A.,, T. N. C. Price,, A. J. Berry,, and I. Phillips. 1988. Laboratory diagnosis of peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1757 1762.
6. Males, B. M.,, J. J. Walshe,, L. Garringer,, D. Koscinski,, and D. Amsterdam. 1986. Addi- Chek filtration, BACTEC, and 10-ml culture methods for recovery of microorganisms from dialysis effluent during episodes of peritonitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 350 353.
7. Piraino, B.,, G. R. Bailie,, J. Bernardini,, E. Boeschoten,, A. Gupta,, C. J. Holmes,, E. J. Kuijper,, P. K. Li,, W. C. Lye,, S. Mujais,, D. L. Paterson,, M. P. Fontan,, A. Ramos,, F. Schaefer,, and L. Uttley. 2005. ISPD Ad Hoc Advisory Committee. Peritoneal dialysisrelated infections recommendations: 2005 update. Perit. Dial. Int. 25: 107 131.
8. Ryan, S.,, and S. Fessia. 1987. Improved methods for recovery of peritonitis-causing organisms from peritoneal dialysate. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 383 384.
9. Saubolle, M. A.,, D. L. Sewell,, M. D. Holland,, and T. A. Golper. 1989. Comparison of two commercial broth-culture systems for microbial detection in dialysates of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12: 457 461.
10. Sewell, D. L.,, T. A. Golper,, P. P. B. Hulman,, C. M. Thomas,, L. M. West,, W. Y. Kubey,, and L. Holmes. 1990. Comparison of large volume culture to other methods for isolation of microorganisms from dialysate. Perit. Dial. Int. 10: 49 52.
11. Van Caseele, P.,, M. J. Alfa,, and G. K. Harding. 2000. Assessment of the FAN aerobic bottle for culture of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluid using the BacT/Alert system. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 36: 85 90.
12. Warady, B. A.,, F. Schaefer,, M. Holloway,, S. Alexander,, M. Kandert,, B. Piraino,, I. Salusky,, A. Tranæus,, J. Divo,, M. Honda,, S. Mujais,, and E. Verrina. 2000. Consensus guidelines for the treatment of peritonitis in pediatric patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. Perit. Dial. Int. 20: 610 624.
13. Woods, G. L.,, and J. A. Washington II. 1987. Comparison of methods for processing dialysate in suspected continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7: 155 157.

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