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Chapter 15.3 : Biohazard Containment

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Abstract:

In addition to implementing standard microbiological procedures and practices, management of the biohazards associated with working with pathogens includes physical barriers and administrative controls. Physical barriers include primary safety equipment and secondary facility design. Procedures 15.3.2 through 15.3.5 describe general physical and administrative controls for microbial containment.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Biohazard Containment, p 662-673. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch15.3
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Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Biohazard Containment, p 662-673. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch15.3
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References

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1. Kimman, T. G.,, E. Smit,, and M. R. Klein. 2008. Evidence-based biosafety: a review of the principles and effectiveness of microbiological containment measures. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21:403425.
2. Gilchrist, M. J. R.,, J. Hindler,, and D. O. Fleming,. 1992. Laboratory safety management, p. xxixxxxvii. In H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, vol. 1. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. February 2007, posting date. BioSafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. http://www.cdc.gov/OD/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/bmbl5toc.htm
4. Fleming, D. O.,, and D. L. Hunt (ed.). 2006. Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, 4th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
5. Noble, M. A., 2007. Prevention and control of laboratory-acquired infections, p. 97106. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
6. CLSI. 2005. Protection of Laboratory Workers from Occupationally Acquired Infections, Appendix B. Document M29-A3. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
7. Kruse, R. H.,, W. H. Puckett,, and J. H. Richardson. 1991. Biological safety cabinet. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4:207241.
8. National Sanitation Foundation. 1988. Standard 49 for Class II (Laminar Flow) Biohazard Cabinetry. National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.
9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1995. Primary Containment of Biohazards: Selection, Installation and Use of Biological Safety Cabinets. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.
1.Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 2001. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens; needlestick and other sharps injuries: final rule. Fed. Regist. 66:53185325.
2.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1999. Preventing needlestick injuries in health care settings. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (NIOSH) publication no. 2000-108. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.
3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. February 2007, posting date. BioSafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. http://www.cdc.gov/OD/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/bmbl5toc.htm.
4.Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1991. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens: final rule. Fed. Regist. 56:6400464182.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 15.3.2-1a

Risk assessment and exposure control plan for the clinical microbiology laboratory

P, prohibited; R, required; D, discretionary; A, one of the required alternatives; AST, antimicrobial susceptibility testing; BSC, biological safety cabinet; CPE, cytopathic effect.

.

Gowns with solid front and impervious to liquid. Many employers provide and launder gowns, thus replacing the need for lab coats.

Recapping of needles should be prohibited. Carry tubes in racks, or use plastic tubes. Plan each task to minimize known hazard. Wash hands when leaving the laboratory.

Sharps include scalpel blades, pipettes, plastic loops, sticks, needles, syringes, slides, and coverslips.

Open sealed cups only in BSCs.

Use a BSC or acrylic splash shield.

Requires surveillance and action plan for occasional isolation of BSL 3 organisms (e.g., species, species, species, and systemic fungi), especially if plates are held for ≥3 days.

requires a BSC and safety centrifuge.

Requires a contingency plan for breakage of culture containers.

Mycobacteria other than those causing tuberculosis (MOTT group) may be handled at BSL 2; however, use BSL 3 practices since most manipulations precede organism identification.

Use HEPA-filtered mask or respirator in addition to BSC for culture of group.

Special precaution for BSL 4 agents (e.g., hemorrhagic fever virus) should be arranged (e.g., call CDC).

Vortexing or other splatter-generating steps require use of a BSC or safety shield.

Requires BSL 3 practices if there is a potential for aerosols.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Biohazard Containment, p 662-673. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch15.3
Generic image for table
Table 15.3.2-1b

Risk assessment and exposure control plan for the clinical microbiology laboratory

P, prohibited; R, required; D, discretionary; A, one of the required alternatives; AST, antimicrobial susceptibility testing; BSC, biological safety cabinet; CPE, cytopathic effect.

.

Gowns with solid front and impervious to liquid. Many employers provide and launder gowns, thus replacing the need for lab coats.

Recapping of needles should be prohibited. Carry tubes in racks, or use plastic tubes. Plan each task to minimize known hazard. Wash hands when leaving the laboratory.

Sharps include scalpel blades, pipettes, plastic loops, sticks, needles, syringes, slides, and coverslips.

Open sealed cups only in BSCs.

Use a BSC or acrylic splash shield.

Requires surveillance and action plan for occasional isolation of BSL 3 organisms (e.g., species, species, species, and systemic fungi), especially if plates are held for ≥3 days.

requires a BSC and safety centrifuge.

Requires a contingency plan for breakage of culture containers.

Mycobacteria other than those causing tuberculosis (MOTT group) may be handled at BSL 2; however, use BSL 3 practices since most manipulations precede organism identification.

Use HEPA-filtered mask or respirator in addition to BSC for culture of group.

Special precaution for BSL 4 agents (e.g., hemorrhagic fever virus) should be arranged (e.g., call CDC).

Vortexing or other splatter-generating steps require use of a BSC or safety shield.

Requires BSL 3 practices if there is a potential for aerosols.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Biohazard Containment, p 662-673. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch15.3

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