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Chapter 16.2 : Levels of Laboratory Safety

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Levels of Laboratory Safety, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The importance of laboratory safety must be emphasized. Laboratory workers have always been shown to be at risk for laboratory- acquired infections. Such infections include typhoid fever; Q fever; cholera; glanders; brucellosis; tetanus; tuberculosis; tularemia; shigellosis; salmonellosis; infections caused by streptococci, spp., and ; and viral infections, such as those caused by the hepatitis viruses, arboviruses, and many others ( ). Interestingly, these infections have occurred in association with documented laboratory accidents in only 16% of the cases ( ), of which 9.5% resulted in death ( ). No national monitoring of laboratory-associated infections exists, but one estimate derived from recent surveys suggests a rate of one to five infections per 1,000 employees ( ). Harding and Byers have reviewed laboratory-associated infections recently ( ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Levels of Laboratory Safety, p 750-755. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch16.2
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References

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1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Laboratory-acquired human glanders— Maryland. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49:532535.
2. Hanson, R. P.,, S. E. Sulkin,, E. I. Buescher,, W. M. Hammon,, R. W. McKinney,, and T. H. Work. 1967. Arbovirus infections of laboratory workers. Science 158:12831286.
3. Harding, A. L.,, and K. B. Byers,. 2000. Epidemiology of laboratory-associated infections, p. 3554. In D. O. Fleming, and D. L. Hint (ed.), Biological Safety Principles and Practices, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4. Harrington, J. M.,, and H. S. Shannon. 1976. Incidence of tuberculosis, hepatitis, brucellosis and shigellosis in British medical laboratory workers. Br. Med. J. 1:759762.
5. Jacobson, J. T.,, R. B. Orlob,, and J. L. Clayton. 1985. Infections acquired in clinical laboratories in Utah. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21:486489.
6. Jamison, R.,, M. A. Noble,, E. M. Proctor,, and J. A. Smith. 1996. Cumitech 29, Laboratory Safety in Clinical Microbiology. Coordinating ed., J. A. Smith. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
7. Meyer, K. F.,, and B. Eddie. 1941. Laboratory infections due to Brucella. J. Infect. Dis. 68:2432.
8. Pike, R. M. 1976. Laboratory-associated infections: summary and analysis of 3921 cases. Health Lab. Sci. 13:105114.
9. Pike, R. M.,, S. E. Sulkin,, and M. L. Schulza. 1965. Continuing importance of laboratoryacquired infections. Am. J. Public Health 55:190199.
10. Sewell, D. L. Laboratory-acquired infections. 2000. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 22:7377.
11. Skinholj, P. 1974. Occupational risks in Danish clinical chemical laboratories. II. Infections. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Investig. 33:2729.
12. Sulkin, S. E.,, and R. M. Pike. 1949. Viral infections contracted in the laboratory. N. Engl. J. Med. 241:205213.
13. Sulkin, S. E.,, and R. M. Pike. 1951. Survey of laboratory-acquired infections. Am. J. Public Health 41:769781.
14. Wilson, M. L.,, and L. B. Reller,. 1998. Clinical laboratory-acquired infections, p. 343355. In J. V. Bennett, and P. S. Brachman (ed.), Hospital Infections, 4th ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA.
15.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2007. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49:114.
17. Gilchrist, M. J. R.,, W. P. McKinney,, J. M. Miller,, and A. S. Weissfeld. 2000. Cumitech 33, Laboratory Safety, Management, and Diagnosis of Agents Associated with Bioterrorism. Coordinating ed., J. W. Snyder. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
18. Klietman, W. F.,, and K. L. Ruoff. 2001. Bioterrorism: implications for the clinical microbiologist. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14:364381.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 16.2-1

Summary of BSL 1

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Levels of Laboratory Safety, p 750-755. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch16.2
Generic image for table
Table 16.2-2

Summary of BSL 2

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Levels of Laboratory Safety, p 750-755. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch16.2
Generic image for table
Table 16.2-3

Summary of BSL 3

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Levels of Laboratory Safety, p 750-755. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch16.2
Generic image for table
Table 16.2-4

Summary of BSL 4

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Levels of Laboratory Safety, p 750-755. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch16.2

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