1887

Chapter 16.4 : Anthrax—

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Anthrax—, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817435/9781555815271_Chap16_4-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817435/9781555815271_Chap16_4-2.gif

Abstract:

., the etiologic agent of anthrax, is classified as a category A agent because of its suitability for and likelihood of use in an attack or biocrime. Disease occurs most frequently in herbivorous animals (e.g., cattle, sheep, and goats), which acquire the endospores from contaminated soil. Human disease is less common and results from contact with infected animals or with commercial products derived from them, such as wool and hides. Infection can occur in one of three forms, depending on the route of acquisition. (i) Cutaneous anthrax, responsible for >95% of naturally occurring cases, is initiated when spores of . are introduced into the skin through cuts or abrasions, such as when handling contaminated wool, hides, leather, or hair products (especially goat hair) from infected animals ( ). There are a few case reports of transmission by insect bites, presumably after the insect fed on an infected carcass ( ). This form is rarely fatal following appropriate antimicrobial therapy. (ii) Gastrointestinal anthrax may occur 1 to 7 days following the consumption of contaminated under-cooked meat from infected animals. Pharyngeal lesions may also occur from ingestion of contaminated food. Mortality in both forms is high ( ). (iii) Inhalation anthrax results from the inhalation of . spores. Though treatable in its early prodromal stage, mortality remains extremely high if antimicrobial treatment is not initiated within 48 h of the onset of symptoms ( ). A single case of inhalation anthrax should alert all health care workers to the possibility of a bioterrorism event ( ). Person-to-person transmission of inhalational anthrax has not been confirmed ( ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anthrax—, p 758-765. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch16.4
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 16.4-1
Figure 16.4-1

. sentinel level laboratory flowchart.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anthrax—, p 758-765. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch16.4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817435.chap16.4
1. Bradaric, N.,, and V. Punda-Polic. 1992. Cutaneous anthrax due to penicillin-resistant B. anthraci. transmitted by an insect bite. Lancet 340:306307.
2.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Bioterrorism alleging use of an-thrax and interim guidelines for management—United States, 1998. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48:6974.
3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49(RR-15):120.
4. Chin, J. 2000. Anthrax, p. 2025. In Control of Communicable Diseases Manua., 17th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
5. Cieslak, T. J.,, and E. M. Eitzen. 1997. Clinical and epidemiologic principles of anthrax.Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:552555.
6.Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. 1996. NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations. Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, Washington, DC.
7. Dixon, T. C.,, M. Meselson,, J. G. Guillemin,, and P. C. Hanna. 1999. Anthrax. N. Engl. J. Med. 341:815826.
8. Eitzen, E.,, J. Pavlin,, T. Cieslak,, G. Christopher,, and R. Culpepper (ed.). 1999. Medi-cal Management of Biological Casualties Handboo., 3rd ed. U.S. Army Medical Re-search Institute for Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD.
9. English, J. F.,, M. Y. Cundiff,, J. D. Malone,, J. A. Pfeiffer,, M. Bell,, L. Steele,, and M. Miller. 1999. APIC Bioterrorism Task Force and CDC Working Group, p. 89. In Bioterrorism Readiness Plan: a Template for Healthcare Facilities. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Washington, DC.
10. Fleming, D. O.,, J. H. Richardson,, J. J. Tullis,, and D. Vesley (ed.). 1995. Laboratory Safety Principles and Practice., 2nd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
11. Franz, D. R.,, P. B. Jahrling,, A. M. Friedlander,, D. J. McClain,, D. L. Hoover,, W. R. Bryne,, J. A. Paulin,, G. W. Christopher,, E. M. Eitzen, Jr. 1997. Clinical recognition and management of patients exposed to biological warfare agents. JAMA 278:399411.
12. Franz, D. R.,, and R. Zajtchuk. 2000. Biological terrorism: understanding the threat, preparation, and medical response. Dis. Mon. 46:125192.
13. Friedlander, A. M., 1997. Anthrax, p. 467478. I. R. Zajtchuk (ed.), Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Department of the Army, Washington, DC.
14. Hail, A. S.,, C. A. Rossi,, G. V. Ludwig,, B. E. Ivans,, R. F. Tammariello,, and E. A. Henchall. 1999. Comparison of noninvasive sampling sites for early detection of Bacillus anthraci. spores from rhesus monkeys after aerosol exposure. Mil. Med. 164:833837.
15. Logan, N. A.,, and P. C. B. Turnbull,. 1999. Bacillu. and recently derived genera, p. 357363. I. P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
16. Shafzand, S.,, R. Doyle,, S. Ruoss,, A. Weinacker,, and T. Rafin. 1995. Inhalational anthrax. Chest 116:13691376.
17. Turell, M. J.,, and G. B. Knudson. 1987. Mechanical transmission of B. anthraci. by stable flies (Stomoxys calcitran.) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypt. and Aedes taeniorhynchu.). Infect. Immun. 55:18591861.
18.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1999>. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratorie., 4th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
19. Weyant, R. S.,, J. W. Ezzell,, T. Popovic,, K. Q. Lindsay,, and S. A. Morse. 1999. Basic laboratory protocols for the presumptive identification of Bacillus anthracis. I. Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response. http://www.bt. cdc.gov.
20. Wiener, S. L.,, and J. Barret, 1986. Biological warfare defense. In Trauma Management for Civilian and Military Physicians. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49(RR-4):114.
22. Gilchrist, M. J. R.,, W. P. McKinney,, J. M. Miller,, and A. S. Weissfeld,. 2000. Cumitech 33, Laboratory Safety, Management, and Diagnosis of Biological Agents Associated with Bioterrorism. Coordinating ed., J. W. Snyder. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
23. Klietmann, W. F.,, and K. L. Ruoff. 2001. Bioterrorism: implications for the clinical microbiologist. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14:364381.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error