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Chapter 16.8 : Tularemia—

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Abstract:

is a tiny (0.2- to 0.5- by 0.7- to 1.0-μm), pleomorphic, nonmotile, fastidious, gram-negative, facultative intracellular coccobacillus. can be divided into two subspecies, subsp. (type A) and subsp. (type B), based on virulence testing, 16S sequencing, biochemical reactions, and epidemiological features. Type A and type B strains are highly infectious (e.g., require only 50 to 100 organisms to cause disease) and are the principal agents of tularemia, a zoonotic plague-like disease distributed only in the northern hemisphere ( ). In the United States, the principal reservoir is the cottontail rabbit (lagomorph), but the disease may also be carried and transmitted by a variety of terrestrial and aquatic mammals, such as beavers, ground squirrels, muskrats, and other rodents ( ). Transmission to humans can occur through the handling of infected animals; through the bites of ticks, mosquitoes, or deerfly vectors; or by ingestion of contaminated stream water. subsp. is infrequently identified as a cause of human disease.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Tularemia—, p 779-782. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch16.8
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Figure 16.8-1

sentinel-level laboratory flowchart.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Tularemia—, p 779-782. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch16.8
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References

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1.American Society for Microbiology. 2001. Basic Protocols for Sentinel Laboratories for the Presumptive Identification of Francisella tularensis. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. http://www.asm.org..
2. Dennis, D. T.,, T. V. Inglesby,, D. A. Henderson,, J. G. Bartlett,, M. S. Ascher, et al. 2001. Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA 285:27632773.
3. Ellis, J.,, P. C. F. Oyston,, M. Green,, and R. W. Titball. 2002. Tularemia. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15:631646.
4. Lindquist, D.,, M. C. Chu,, and W. S. Probert,. 2007. Francisella and Brucella, p. 815834. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
5. Urich, S. K.,, and J. M. Petersen. 2008. In vitro susceptibility of isolates of Francisella tularensis types A and B from North America. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:22762278.
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7. Department of Health and Human Services. 2007. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
8. Gilchrist, M. J. R.,, W. P. McKinney,, J. M. Miller,, and A. S. Weissfeld. 2000. Cumitech 33, Laboratory Safety, Management, and Diagnosis of Biological Agents Associated with Bioterrorism. Coordinating ed., J. W. Snyder. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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