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Chapter 3.10 : Ocular Cultures

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Abstract:

Inflammatory eye conditions may be due to a variety of diseases, and microorganisms play a major role in both acute and chronic diseases ( Table 3.10-1 ). The detection of infectious agents depends on knowledge of the site of infection and the severity of the process, because a variety of organisms cause infections of the eye. Unlike the procedures with other specimen types, it may be important for the physician to inoculate culture media at the bedside rather than transport the specimen to the laboratory for processing. This procedure describes the clinical syndromes associated with bacterial infections of the eye, the organisms associated with these syndromes, and the procedure for isolation of these infectious agents. In addition to aerobic bacterial culture, Table 3.10-2 indicates the media to inoculate for anaerobic, fungal, and mycobacterial cultures. Refer to the respective sections of the handbook for workup of the microorganisms that are not covered in this procedure.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Ocular Cultures, p 312-320. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch3.10
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References

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1. Chern, K. C.,, D. M. Meisler,, G. S. Hall,, S. M. Myers,, R. E. Foster,, Z. N. Zakov,, and C. Y. Lowder. 1996. Bacterial contamination of anaerobic vitreous cultures: using techniques employed for endophthalmitis. Curr. Eye Res. 15: 697 699.
2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2004. Quality Assurance for Commercially Prepared Microbiological Culture Media, 3rd ed. Approved standard M22-A3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
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6. Baum, J. 1995. Infections of the eye. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 479 486.
7. Brady, S. E.,, E. J. Cohen,, and D. H. Fischer. 1988. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis. Ophthalmic Surg. 19: 590 594.
8. Brook, I. 1980. Anaerobic and aerobic flora of acute conjunctivitis in children. Arch. Ophthalmol. 98: 833 835.
9. Brook, I. 1988. Presence of anaerobic bacteria in conjunctivitis associated with wearing contact lenses. Ann. Ophthalmol. 20: 397 399.
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11. Friedlaender, M. H. 1995. A review of the causes and treatment of bacterial and allergic conjunctivitis. Clin. Ther. 17: 800 810.
12. Israele, V.,, and J. D. Nelson. 1987. Periorbital and orbital cellulitis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 6: 404 410.
13. Joondeph, B. C.,, H. W. Flynn,, D. Miller,, and H. C. Joondeph. 1989. A new culture method for infectious endophthalmitis. Arch. Ophthalmol. 107: 1334 1337.
14. Kinnear, F. B.,, and C. M. Kirkness. 1995. Advances in rapid laboratory diagnosis of infectious endophthalmitis. J. Hosp. Infect. 30( Suppl): 253 261.
15. Klotz, S. A.,, C. C. Penn,, G. J. Negvesky,, and S. I. Butrus. 2000. Fungal and parasitic infections of the eye. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13: 662 685.
16. Kresloff, M. S.,, A. A. Castellarin,, and M. A. Zarbin. 1998. Endophthalmitis. Surv. Ophthalmol. 43: 193 224.
17. Mandell, G. L.,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.). 2005. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Churchill Livingstone, New York, NY.
18. McNatt, J.,, S. D. Allen,, L. A. Wilson,, and V. R. Dowell. 1978. Anaerobic flora of the normal human conjunctival sac. Arch. Ophthalmol. 96: 1448 1450.
19. Okhravi, N.,, P. Adamson,, and S. Lightman. 2000. Use of PCR in endophthalmitis. Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm. 8: 189 200.
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23. Weissgold, D. J.,, and D. J. D'Amico. 1996. Rare causes of endophthalmitis. Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 36: 163 177.
24. Wilhelmus, K. R.,, T. J. Liesegang,, M. S. Osato,, and D. B. Jones. 1994. Cumitech 13A, Laboratory Diagnosis of Ocular Infections. Coordinating ed., S. C. Specter. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 3.10–1a

Clinical description of common ocular infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Ocular Cultures, p 312-320. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch3.10
Generic image for table
Table 3.10–1b

Clinical description of common ocular infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Ocular Cultures, p 312-320. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch3.10
Generic image for table
Table 3.10–2

Handling of specimens for diagnosis of ocular infections

Bacterial culture includes a Gram stain, fungal culture includes a calcofluor white stain, and AFB culture includes an auramine-rhodamine or Ziehl-Neelsen stain.

DFA, direct fluorescent antibody testing.

Fungal media may include IMA, BHI, or potato flake agar.

AFB media may include Lowenstein-Jensen or Middlebrook agar and broth culture.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Ocular Cultures, p 312-320. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch3.10

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