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Chapter 3.14 : Culture

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Abstract:

Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonosis caused by the genus . pathogenic infects about 160 wild and domesticated mammalian species serovars occur within some species ( , worldwide, which excrete the organism in their urine. The human disease is more commonly associated with occupations or recreational activities associated with direct skin or mucous membrane contact either with the animal reservoir or with water, soil, or sewage contaminated with the animal urine. The genus was previously divided into two species, and , which were differentiated by a number of biochemical tests ( ). Most reports of human infection are based on this phenotypic classification system, and comprised all pathogenic strains, while was thought to include only saprophytic environmental strains ( ). Leptospires are also assigned a serovar based on agglutination after cross-absorption with homologous antigen ( . ). comprises 218 serovars, while comprises more than 60 serovars ( ). serovars that are antigenically related are further grouped into serogroups, primarily for epidemiological purposes when interpreting serologic test results to distinguish closely related species.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Culture, p 463-468. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch3.14
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References

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1. Ellinghausen, H. C., Jr.,, and W. G. McCullough. 1965. Nutrition of Leptospira pomona and growth of 13 other serotypes: fractionation of oleic albumin complex (OAC) and a medium of bovine albumin and polysorbate 80. Am. J. Vet. Res. 26:4551.
2. Johnson, R. C.,, and V. G. Harris. 1967. Differentiation of pathogenic and saprophytic leptospires. 1. Growth at low temperatures. J. Bacteriol. 94:2731.

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