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Chapter 4.10 : Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli

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Abstract:

The anaerobic gram-negative bacteria are part of the microbiota of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract ( ). Many taxonomic changes have been instituted based on newer biochemical and molecular sequencing considerations. There are new genera and species for “old names” and newly described organisms, and these will only increase in numbers as better culture techniques and more advanced methods for molecular identification are utilized ( ). These changes have made under-standing current taxonomy and correlating old and new names in the clinical literature more difficult for laboratorians and clinicians alike. Clinical decisions still require accurate, timely identification of clinically relevant anaerobic pathogens by the clinical microbiology laboratory. We, as laboratorians, need to keep abreast of the changes and relay those changes as efficiently as possible to our colleagues in a manner that maintains the old and new; i.e., always consider sharing with the clinician the old and new genera, for example, so that they can associate the two. Table 4.10-1 gives information about some of the changes in taxonomy of the anaerobic gram-negative bacilli.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
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Figures

Image of Figure 4.10-1
Figure 4.10-1

Reaction to kanamycin, vancomycin, and colistin disks. Pos, positive; Neg, negative; GNR, gram-negative rods; R, resistant; S, susceptible.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
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Image of Figure 4.10-2
Figure 4.10-2

Identification of Fusobacterium spp. Pos, Positive; Neg, negative. ONPG, -nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
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Image of Figure 4.10-3
Figure 4.10-3

Identification of pigmented spp. Pos, positive; Neg, negative.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
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Image of Figure 4.10-4
Figure 4.10-4

Identification of spp. Some spp. of animal origin that may be recovered from bite infections are not listed. Pos, positive; Neg, negative.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
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Image of Figure 4.10-5
Figure 4.10-5

Identification of the Bacteroides fragilis group. Pos, positive; Neg, negative.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
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References

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10. Holdeman, L.V.,, E. P. Cato,, and W. E. C. Moore. 1977. Anaerobe Laboratory Manual, 4th ed. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.
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12. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
12a.Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. The adjectival form of the epithet in Tannerella forsythensis Sakamoto et al. 2002 is to be retained and the name is to be corrected to Tannerella forsythia Sakamoto et al. 2002. Opinion 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:1974.
13. Kononen, E.,, J. Matto,, M. L. Vaisanen-Tunkelrott,, E. V. G. Frandsen,, I. Helander,, S. Asikainen,, S. M. Finegold,, and H. R. Jousimies-Somer. 1998. Biochemical and genetic characterization of a Prevotella intermedia/nigrescen-like organism. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48:3946.
13a. Maiden, M. F. J.,, P. Cohee,, and A. C. R. Tanner. 2003. Proposal to conserve the adjectival form of the specific epithet in the reclassification of Bacteroides forsythus Tanner et al. 1986 to the genus Tannerella Sakamoto et al. 2002 as Tannerella forsythia corrig., gen. nov., comb. nov. Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:21112112.
14. Mangels, J. I.,, I. Edvalson,, and M. Cox. 1993. Rapid presumptive identification of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms with use of 4-methylumbelliferone-derivative substrates. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16:S319S321.
15. Rautio, M.,, E. Eerola,, M.L. Väisänen-Tunkelrott,, D. Molitoris,, M. D. Collins,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 2003. Reclassification of Bacteroides putredinis (Weinberg et al., 1937) in a new genus Alistipes gen. nov., as Alistipes putredinis comb. nov., and description of Alistipes finegoldii sp. nov., from human sources. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 26:182188.
16. Sakamoto, M.,, and Y. Benno. 2006. Reclassification of Bacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides goldsteinii, and Bacteroides merdae as Parabacteroides distasonis gen. nov., comb. nov., Parabacteroides goldsteinii comb. nov., and Parabacteroides merdae comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol .56:15991605.
16a. Sakamoto, M.,, M. Suzuki,, M. Umeda,, I. Ishikawa,, and Y. Benno. 2002. Reclassification of Bacteroides forsythus (Tanner et al. 1986) as Tannerella forsythus corrig., gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:841849.
17. Shah, H.N.,, and M. D. Collins. 1988. Proposal for reclassification of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Bacteroides endodontalis in a new genus, Porphyromonas. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38:128131.
18. Slots, J.,, and H. S. Reynolds. 1982. Long-wave UV light fluorescence for identification of black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:11481151.
19. Song, Y.,, C. Liu,, J. Lee,, M. Bolanos,, M. L. Vaisanen,, and S. M. Finegold. 2005. Bacteroides goldsteinii sp. nov. isolated from clinical specimens of human intestinal origin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:45224527.
20. Vandamme, P.,, M. I. Daneshvar,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, K. Kersters,, H. Goossens,, and C. W. Moss. 1995. Chemotaxonomic analyses of Bacteroides gracilis and Bacteroides ureolyticus and reclassification of B. gracilisas Campylobacter gracilis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45:145152.
21. Wexler, H. M.,, D. Reeves,, P. H. Summanen,, E. Molitoris,, M. McTeague,, J. Duncan,, K. Wilson,, and S. M. Finegold. 1996. Sutterella wadsworthensis gen. nov., sp. nov., bile-resistant microaerophilic Campylobacter gracilis-like clinical isolates. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.46:252258.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 4.10-1

Changes in taxonomy among the anaerobic gram-negative bacili

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
Generic image for table
Table 4.10-2

Characteristics of spp.

+, positive; −, negative; +−, most cells are positive and some are negative; − , most cells are negative and some (even subspecies may be positive Adapted from reference .

ONPG, -nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside; test with API ZYM or Roscoe tablets

Has been associated with animal bites

Can cause “tropical ulcers” ( ) also nitrate positive.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
Generic image for table
Table 4.10-3

Characteristics of the group

+, positive; −, negative; +−, most strains are positive, but occasional strains are negative; −+, most strains are negative, but occasional strains are positive; w, weak; V, variable. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
Generic image for table
Table 4.10-4

Characteristics of spp. of human origin

Adapted from reference 3. +, positive; −, negative; −+, most strains are negative and some are positive; +−, most strains are positive and some are negative; W. weak reactions usual; ONPG, nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside; NAG, -acetyl-β-glucosaminidase. All organisms in this table are esculin negative. may be lipase positive, but all others in the table are lipase negative.

These results are obtained with Roscoe tablets (WEE-Tabs), used according to the manufacturer's directions.

may be lipase positive; all others in this table are lipase negative.

is very similar to but has been associated with nonoral human infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
Generic image for table
Table 4.10-5

Characteristics of pigmented and saccharolytic spp.

+, positive; −, negative; V, variable

NAG, -acetyl-β-glucosaminidase

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
Generic image for table
Table 4.10-6

Characteristics of 20% bile-sensitive, nonpigmented, and saccharolytic spp.

Adapted from reference . +, positive; −, negative; W, weak positive reactions; V, variable reactions; ONPG, -nitrophenyl-β--galactopyranoside; NAG, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase.

These results are obtained with Roscoe tablets (WEE-Tabs), used according to the manufacturer's directions.

These results were obtained using 4-methylumbellireyl substrates.

is also catalase and lipase positive.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10
Generic image for table
Table 4.10-7

Characteristics of spp. and other anaerobic gram-negative bacilli that are weakly saccharolytic or nonsaccharolytic

Adapted from reference 3. +, positive; −, negative; −+, most strains are negative and some are positive; +−, most strains are positive and some are negative; W, weak reactions usual; NT, not tested; V, variable reactions.

These results are obtained with Roscoe tablets (WEE-Tabs), used according to the manufacturer's directions.

F/F, formate and fumarate; +, stimulated by addition of formate and/or fumarate to the medium.

will not grow on a BBE agar plate, even though it will be resistant to a 20% bile disk.

( ).

( ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, p 756-769. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.10

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