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Chapter 4.11 : Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli

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Abstract:

Anaerobic gram-positive bacilli of clinical relevance in human infections are divided into two distinct groups: members of the genus , which are spore-forming gram-positive anaerobic bacilli, and a group composed of more than 34 genera of non-spore-forming anaerobic gram-positive bacilli. Of the non-spore-formers, 6 genera are most commonly associated with clinical infections: , , , , , and ( ). Two additional genera, and , have more recently been found in association with bacterial vaginosis and other infections; however, they are not easily recovered, and their pathogenicity is not as well understood ( ). There have been many taxonomic changes among the an-aerobic gram-positive non-spore-forming bacilli. Some of these species that have been found in clinical samples are listed in Table 4.11-1 . Many of the anaerobic gram-positive bacilli are part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and skin. They can, however, be associated with skin and soft tissue infections, periodontitis and other oral infections, pulmonary infections (usually in combination with other aerobes and anaerobes), genitourinary tract infections, and, in the case of , infected CSF shunts. , .

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli, p 770-781. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.11
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Figures

Image of Figure 4.11-1
Figure 4.11-1

Identification tips for spore-forming rods using egg yolk agar (EYA). ID, identification.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli, p 770-781. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.11
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Image of Figure 4.11-2
Figure 4.11-2

Procedure for identification of pure-colony anaerobic gram-positive bacillus from brucella or other agar. Refer to previous sections for details on collection, isolation, culture, and examination of plates and on obtaining pure colonies of anaerobic gram-positive rods. CMC, chopped meat-carbohydrate; ID, identification; Kan, kanamycin; Van, vancomycin; Col, colistin; r, resistant; s, susceptible.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli, p 770-781. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.11
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References

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1. Clarridge, J. E.,, and O. Zhang. 2002. Genotypic diversity of clinical Actinomyces species: phenotype, source, and disease correlation among genospecies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:34423448.
2. Dewhirst, F. E.,, B. J. Paster,, N. Tzellas,, B. Coleman,, J. Downes,, D. A. Spratt,, and W. G. Wade. 2001. Characterization of novel human oral isolates and cloned 16S rDNA sequences that fall in the Coriobacteriaceae: description of Olsenella gen. nov., reclassification of Lactobacillus uli as Olsenella uli comb. nov. and description of Olsenella profusa sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:17971804.
3. Downes, J.,, B. Olsvik,, S. J. Hiom,, D. A. Spratt,, S. L. Cheeseman,, I. Olsen,, A. J. Weightman,, and W. G. Wade. 2000. Bulleidia extructa gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50:979983.
4. Ferris, M. J.,, A. Masztal,, and D. H. Martin. 2004. Use of species-directed 16S rRNA gene PCR primers for detection of Atopobium vaginae in patients with bacterial vaginosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:58925894.
5. Finegold, S. M.,, and W. L. George. 1989. Anaerobic Infections in Humans. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.
6. Forbes, B. A.,, D. F. Sahm,, and A. S. Weissfeld (ed.). 2007. Bailey and Scott's Diagnostic Bacteriology, 12th ed. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, MO.
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8. Hall, V.,, M. D. Collins,, R. Hutson,, E. Falsen,, and B. I. Duerden. 2002. Actinomyces cardiffensis sp. nov. from human clinical sources. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:34273431.
9. Hall, V.,, P. R. Talbot,, S. L. Stubbs,, and B. I. Duerden. 2001. Identification of clinical isolates of Actinomyces species by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:35553562.
10. Holdeman, L. V.,, E. P. Cato,, and W. E. C. Moore. 1977. Anaerobe Laboratory Manual, 4th ed. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.
11. Johnson, E. A.,, P. Summanen,, and S. M. Finegold,. 2007. Clostridium, p. 889910. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
12. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
13. Könönen, E.,, and W. G. Wade,. 2007. Propionibacterium, Lactobacillus, Actinomyces, and other non-spore-forming anaerobic grampositive rods, p. 872888. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
14. Nakazawa, F.,, S. E. Poco,, M. Sato,, T. Ikeda,, S. Kalfas,, G. Sundqvist,, and E. Hoshino. 2002. Taxonomic characterization of Mogibacterium diversum sp. nov. and Mogibacterium neglectum sp. nov., isolated from human oral cavities. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:115122.
15. Ramos, C. P.,, E. Falsen,, N. Alvarez,, E. Akervall,, B. Sjoden,, and M. D. Collins. 1997. Actinomyces graevenitzii sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:885888.
16. Sabbe, L. J. M.,, D. Van de Merwe,, L. Schouls,, A. Bergmans,, M. Vaneechoutte,, and P. Vandamme. 1999. Clinical spectrum of infections due to newly described Actinomyces species A. turicensis, A. radingae, and A. europaeus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:813.
17. Sarkonen, N.,, E. Könönen,, P. Summanen,, M. Könönen,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 2001. Phenotypic identification of Actinomyces and related species isolated from human sources. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:39553961.
18. Stackebrandt, E.,, P. Schumann,, K. P. Schaal,, and N. Weiss. 2002. Propionimicrobium gen. nov., a new genus to accommodate Propionibacterium lymphophilum (Torrey 1916) Johnson and Cummins 1972, 1057AL as Propionimicrobium lymphophilum comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:19251927.
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 4.11-1

Changes in taxonomy among the anaerobic gram-positive bacilli

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli, p 770-781. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.11
Generic image for table
Table 4.11-2

Cost-effective identification tips for the commonly recovered spp.

+, positive; -, negative; ST, subterminal; T, terminal.

may form large, spreading colonies.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli, p 770-781. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.11
Generic image for table

Gram stain, colonial characteristics, and common biochemical clues to identify species of and

α-GLU, alpha-glucosidase; +, positive; −, negative; V, variable; (+), better growth anaerobically; ND, not determined; UTI, urinary tract infections. Adapted from references , and .

May enhance growth in broth with 5% rabbit or horse blood.

May produce pink to red colonies in ambient air.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli, p 770-781. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.11
Generic image for table

Gram stain and colonial characteristics of anaerobic gram-positive bacilli

Spore location: ST, subterminal; T, terminal.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli, p 770-781. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.11
Generic image for table
APPENDIX 4.11-3

Phenotypic characteristics of sp,

Adapted from reference with permission.

+, positive reactions for 90 to 100% of strains; −, negative reactions for 90 to 100% of strains; +−, most strains positive, some strains negative; −+, most strains negative, some strains positive; V, variable (strains may be either + or −).

OA, only anaerobic; RS, rarely seen; O, oval; R, round; S, subterminal; T, terminal.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli, p 770-781. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.11
Generic image for table
Untitled

Characteristics of selected anaerobic gram-positive bacilli that are new species or were formerly identified as , , or other organisms

Adapted from material in references and . Where no information is included, not much is known about the biochemical characteristics of the organism at this time. +, positive; −, negative; V, variable; ADH, arginine dihydrolase.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli, p 770-781. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.11

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