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Chapter 4.12 : Anaerobic Cocci

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Abstract:

The anaerobic cocci are a prominent part of the normal human microbiota of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, and female genital tract. Anaerobic gram-positive cocci can be important human pathogens, and next to the anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, these anaerobes are the most commonly isolated anaerobes in clinically relevant infections ( ). In four surveys of human anaerobic pathogens in various clinical specimens, anaerobic cocci constituted 24 to 31% of all isolates ( ). The types of infections in which anaerobic gram-positive cocci predominate include infections in patients with a variety of head and neck infections, including periodontitis, chronic otitis media, chronic sinusitis, and brain abscesses; infectious processes in the female genital tract, including tubo-ovarian abscesses; and infections of the abdominal cavity, including peritonitis and perforated appendices. Many of these infections are polymicrobic, including other aerobes and anaerobes ( ). Anaerobic gram-negative cocci, although not infrequently encountered in the clinical laboratory from clinical specimens, are not often associated with a great number of infections ( ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Cocci, p 782-789. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.12
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Figures

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Figure 4.12-1

Flowchart for identification of anaerobic cocci.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Cocci, p 782-789. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.12
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Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Cocci, p 782-789. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.12
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References

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1. Downes, J.,, M. A. Munson,, D. A. Spratt,, E. Kononen,, E. Tarkka,, H. Jousimies-Somer,, and W. G. Wade. 2001. Characterisation of Eubacterium-like strains isolated from oral infections. J. Med. Microbiol. 50:947951.
2. Ezaki, T.,, Y. Kawamura,, N. Li,, Z. Y. Li,, L. Zhao,, and S. Shu. 2001. Proposal of the genera Anaerococcus gen. nov., Peptoniphilus gen. nov., and Gallicola gen. nov. for members of the genus Peptostreptococcus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:15211528.
3. Finegold, S. M.,, and W. L. George. 1989. Anaerobic Infections in Humans. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.
4. Forbes, B. A.,, D. F. Sahm,, and A. S. Weissfeld (ed.). 2007. Bailey and Scott's Diagnostic Bacteriology, 12th ed. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, MO.
5. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
6. Jumas-Bilak, E.,, J. P. Carlier,, H. Jean-Pierre,, C. Teyssier,, B. Gay,, J. Campos,, and H. Marchandin. 2004. Veillonella montpellierensis sp. nov., a novel, anaerobic, gram-negative coccus isolated from human clinical samples. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54:13111316.
7. Murdoch, D. A. 1998. Anaerobic gram-positive cocci. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11:81120.
8. Murdoch, D.A.,, and N. H. Shah. 1999. Re-classification of Peptostreptococcus magnus (Prevot 1933) Holdeman and Moore 1972 as Finegoldia magna comb. nov. and Peptostreptococcus micros (Prevot 1933) Smith 1957 as Micromonas micros comb. nov. Anaerobe 5:555559.
9. Song, Y.,, and S. M. Finegold,. 2007. Peptostreptococcus, Finegoldia, Anaerococcus, Peptoniphilus, Veillonella, and other anaerobic cocci, p. 862871. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
10. Song, Y.,, C. Liu,, and S. M. Finegold. 2007. Development of a flow chart for identification of gram-positive anaerobic cocci in the clinical laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:512516.
11. Song, Y.,, C. Liu,, M. McTeague,, and S. M. Finegold. 2003. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence-based analysis of clinically significant gram-positive anaerobic cocci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:13631369.
12. Song, Y.,, C. Liu,, M. McTeague,, A. Vu,, J. Y. Liu,, and S. M. Finegold. 2003. Rapid identification of Gram-positive anaerobic coccal species originally classified in the genus Peptostreptococcus by multiplex PCR assays using genus-and species-specific primers. Microbiology 149:17191727.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 4.12-1

Characteristics of commonly recovered , , , , , and spp.

PYR, pyrrolidonyl arylamino dihydrolase; +, positive; −, negative; d, often a delayed positive; w, weak; V, some strains are positive and some are negative. Adapted from references , and .

Inhibited by SPS.

Growth in broth is enhanced with addition of Tween 80. In addition, lactose is fermented, which separates out this species of from other species.

is catalase positive if colonies are removed from hemin-containing media; cells are nitrate positive. Initial growth will be anaerobic only, but some growth may occur on BAP if subcultured and incubated in CO.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Anaerobic Cocci, p 782-789. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.12

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