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Chapter 4.2 : Collection and Transport of Clinical Specimens for Anaerobic Culture

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Abstract:

Proper collection of specimens to avoid contamination with organisms of the normal microbiota and prompt transport to the laboratory for processing are essential. The isolation of anaerobic bacteria from appropriately collected clinical samples and reporting of that information as quickly as possible are extremely important for the clinician to be able to implement appropriate therapeutics. Gram stains are needed to provide a rapid analysis of the appropriateness of the sample and are essential for the correlation to what grows out in the laboratory.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Collection and Transport of Clinical Specimens for Anaerobic Culture, p 686-693. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.2
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References

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1. Citron, D. M.,, Y. A. Warren,, M. K. Hudspeth,, and E. J. C. Goldstein. 2000. Survival of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in purulent clinical specimens maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and Becton Dickinson Port-A-Cul transport systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:892894.
2. Dowd, S. E.,, Y. Sun,, P. R. Secor,, D. D. Rhoads,, B. M. Wolcott,, G. A. James,, and R. D. Wolcott. 2008. Survey of bacterial diversity in chronic wounds using pyrosequencing, DGGE, and full ribosome shotgun sequencing. BMC Microbiol. 8:43.
3. Dowd, S. E.,, R. D. Wolcott,, Y. Sun,, T. McKeehan,, E. Smith,, and D. Rhoads. 2008. Polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic foot ulcer biofilm infections determined using bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). PLoS ONE 10:e3326.
4. Hindiyeh, M.,, V. Acevedo,, and K. C. Carroll. 2001. Comparison of three transport systems (Starplex StarSwab II, the new Copan ViPak Amies agar gel collection and transport swabs, and BBL Port-A-Cul) for maintenance of anaerobic and fastidious aerobic organisms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:377380.
5. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
6. Kessler, L.,, Y. Piemont,, F. Ortega,, O. Lesens,, C. Boeri,, C. Averous,, R. Meyer,, Y. Hansmann,, D. Christmann,, J. Gaudias,, and M. Pinget. 2006. Comparison of microbiological results of needle puncture vs. superficial swab in infected diabetic foot ulcer with osteomyelitis. Diabet. Med. 23:99102.
7. Miller, J. M. 1999. A Guide to Specimen Management in Clinical Microbiology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
8. Miller, J. M.,, K. Krisher,, and H. T. Holmes,. 2007. General principles of specimen collection and handling, p. 4354. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
9. Quercia, R.,, F. Bani Sadr,, A. Cortez,, G. Arlet,, and G. Pialoux. 2006. Genital tract actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii. Med. Mal. Infect. 36:393395.
10. Senneville, E.,, H. Melliez,, E. Beltrand,, L. Legout,, M. Valette,, M. Cazaubiel,, M. Cordonnier,, M. Caillaux,, Y. Yazdanpanah,, and Y. Mouton. 2005. Culture of percutaneous bone biopsy specimens for diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis: concordance with ulcer swab cultures. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:5762.
11. Thomson, R. B., 2007. Specimen collection, transport, and processing: bacteriology, p. 291233. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
12. Van Horn, K. G.,, C. D. Audette,, K. A. Tucker,, and D. Sebeck. 2008. Comparison of 3 swab transport systems for direct release and recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 62:471473.
13. Westhoff, C. 2007. Intrauterine devices and colonization or infection with Actinomyces. Contraception 75:S48S50.
14. Finegold, S. M.,, and W. L. George. 1989. Anaerobic Infections in Humans. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.
15. Forbes, B. A.,, D. F. Sahm,, and A. S. Weissfeld (ed.). 2007. Bailey and Scott's Diagnostic Bacteriology, 12th ed. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, MO.
16. Mangels, J. I. 1994. Anaerobic transport systems: are they necessary? Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 16:101104.
17. Finegold, S. M.,, and W. L. George. 1989. Anaerobic Infections in Humans. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.
18. Forbes, B. A.,, D. F. Sahm,, and A. S. Weissfeld (ed.). 2007. Bailey and Scott's Diagnostic Bacteriology, 12th ed. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, MO.
19. Mangels, J. I. 1994. Anaerobic transport systems: are they necessary? Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 16:101104.

Tables

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Table 4.2-1

Acceptable specimens for anaerobic culture

UD, intrauterine device. Culture of an IUD for is controversial. spp. are normal organisms of the genitourinary tract microbiota, and their isolation may not always represent infection. If cultures are done, results should always be correlated with pathological tissue findings ( ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Collection and Transport of Clinical Specimens for Anaerobic Culture, p 686-693. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.2
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Table 4.2-2

Anaerobic specimen transport devices

Partial list of suppliers.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Collection and Transport of Clinical Specimens for Anaerobic Culture, p 686-693. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.2
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Table 4.2-3

Suggested transport times for certain specimen volumes and collection methods

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Collection and Transport of Clinical Specimens for Anaerobic Culture, p 686-693. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.2
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Collection and Transport of Clinical Specimens for Anaerobic Culture, p 686-693. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.2
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Collection and Transport of Clinical Specimens for Anaerobic Culture, p 686-693. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.2
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Collection and Transport of Clinical Specimens for Anaerobic Culture, p 686-693. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.2
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Collection and Transport of Clinical Specimens for Anaerobic Culture, p 686-693. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.2
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Collection and Transport of Clinical Specimens for Anaerobic Culture, p 686-693. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.2

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