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Chapter 4.6 : Rapid Disk, Spot Tests, and Other Methods for the Identification of Anaerobes

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Abstract:

Rapid disk, spot tests, and other methods described in this procedure provide a cost-effective system for the identification of anaerobes. Many of the tests described cost less than $0.25 each to perform (see Appendix 4.6-1 (turn to 4.6.13) for a summary of tests used for the rapid identification of anaerobes).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Rapid Disk, Spot Tests, and Other Methods for the Identification of Anaerobes, p 643-681. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.6
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Figures

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Figure 4.6.3-1

Flowchart for nitrate disk reduction test.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Rapid Disk, Spot Tests, and Other Methods for the Identification of Anaerobes, p 643-681. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.6
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Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Rapid Disk, Spot Tests, and Other Methods for the Identification of Anaerobes, p 643-681. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.6
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References

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1. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
2. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
3. Lombard, G. L.,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1983. Comparison of three reagents for detecting indole production by anaerobic bacteria in microtest systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:609613.
4. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA
5. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA
6. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
7. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA
8. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
9. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
10. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
11. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
12. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
13. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippin-cott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
14. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
15. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
16. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
17. Wideman, P. A.,, V. L. Vargo,, D. Citrobaum,, and S. M. Finegold. 1976. Evaluation of the sodium polyanethol sulfonate disk test for the identification of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4:330333.
18. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
19. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
20. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
21. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
22. Shah, H. N.,, R. Bonnett,, B. Mateen,, and R. A. D. Williams. 1979. The porphyrin pigmentation of subspecies of Bacteroides melaninogenicus. Biochem. .J. 180:4550.
23. Slots, J.,, and H. S. Reynolds. 1982. Long-wave UV light fluorescence for identification of black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:11481151.
24. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
25. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
26. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
27. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
28. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
29. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
30. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
31. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
32. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
33. Shah, H. N.,, R. Bonnett,, B. Mateen,, and R. A. D. Williams. 1979. The porphyrin pigmentation of subspecies of Bacteroides melaninogenicus. Biochem. J.180:4550.
34. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
35. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. Summanen,, D. M. Citron,, E. J. Baron,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
36. MacFaddin, J. F. 2000. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 4.6.5-1

Identification by means of special-potency antimicrobial agent disks

Adapted with permission from H. R. Jousimies-Somer, P. Summanen, D. M. Citron, E. J. Baron, H. M. Wexler, and S. M. Finegold, Wadsworth-, 6th ed., 2002, Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.

R, resistant; S, susceptible; V, variable.

Exceptions: rare strains of spp. and spp. may be vancomycin resistant.

spp. are vancomycin susceptible but fluoresce or are pigmented.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Rapid Disk, Spot Tests, and Other Methods for the Identification of Anaerobes, p 643-681. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.6
Generic image for table
Table 4.6.8-1

Fluorescence of anaerobic bacteria

Fluorescence disappears when black pigment has developed.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Rapid Disk, Spot Tests, and Other Methods for the Identification of Anaerobes, p 643-681. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.6
Generic image for table
APPENDIX 4.6-1a

Summary of tests used for the rapid identification of anaerobes

Abbreviation: grp, group.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Rapid Disk, Spot Tests, and Other Methods for the Identification of Anaerobes, p 643-681. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.6
Generic image for table
APPENDIX 4.6-1b

Summary of tests used for the rapid identification of anaerobes

Abbreviation: grp, group.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Rapid Disk, Spot Tests, and Other Methods for the Identification of Anaerobes, p 643-681. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.6
Generic image for table
APPENDIX 4.6-1c

Summary of tests used for the rapid identification of anaerobes

Abbreviation: grp, group.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Rapid Disk, Spot Tests, and Other Methods for the Identification of Anaerobes, p 643-681. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch4.6

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