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Chapter 6.1 : Specimen Examination and Primary Isolation

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Abstract:

Aerobic actinomycetes cause a variety of infections in humans: respiratory, cutaneous (such as mycetoma, lymphocutaneous and superficial skin [abscess or cellulitis] infections, or secondary cutaneous involvement with disseminated disease), and disseminated, with a marked tropism to the central nervous system, from a primary pulmonary infection. See Appendix 6.3.1–1 at the end of this section for a list of etiologic agents and the sites most commonly associated with these infections.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Specimen Examination and Primary Isolation, p 246-253. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch6.1
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Figures

Image of Figure 6.1–1
Figure 6.1–1

Abbreviated flowchart for isolation of aerobic actinomycetes.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Specimen Examination and Primary Isolation, p 246-253. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch6.1
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References

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1. Becker, B.,, M. P. Lechevalier,, R. E. Gordon,, and H. A. Lechevalier. 1964. Rapid differentiation between Nocardia and Streptomyces by paper chromatography of whole-cell hydrolysates. Appl. Microbiol. 12:421423.
2. Chapin, K. C.,, and T.-L. Lauderdale,. 2007. Reagents, stains, and media: bacteriology, p. 334364. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Haley, L. D.,, and C. S. Callaway. 1978. Laboratory Methods in Medical Mycology. CDC publication no. 78-8361. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
4. McNeil, M. M.,, and J. M. Brown. 1994. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7:357417.
5. Vickers, R. M.,, J. D. Rihs,, and V. L. Yu. 1992. Clinical demonstration of isolation of Nocardia asteroids on buffered charcoal-yeast extract media. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:227228.
6. Bartholomew, J. W. 1962. Variables influencing results, and the precise definition of steps in Gram staining as a means of standardizing the results obtained. StainTechnol.37:139155.
7. Chandler, F. W.,, W. Kaplan,, and L. Ajello. 1980. A color atlas and textbook of histopathology of mycotic diseases. Wolfe Medical Publications, London, United Kingdom.
8. Conville, P. S.,, and F. G. Witebsky,. 2007. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Streptomyces, and other aerobic actinomycetes, p. 515542. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
9. Garratt, M. A.,, H. T. Holmes,, and F. S. Nolte. 1992. Selective buffered charcoal-yeast-extract medium for isolation of nocardiae from mixed cultures. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:18911892.
10. Murray, P. R.,, R. L. Heeren,, and A. C. Niles. 1987. Effect of decontamination procedures on recovery of Nocardia spp. J. Clin. Microbial. 25:20102011.
11. Murray, P. R.,, A. C. Niles,, and R. L. Heeren. 1988. Modified Thayer-Martin medium for recovery of Nocardia species from contaminated specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:12191220.
12. Roberts, G. D.,, N. S. Brewer,, and P. E. Hermans.1974. Diagnosis of nocardiosis by blood cultures. Mayo Clin. Proc.49:293296.

Tables

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Table 6.1–1

Results of tests used for presumptive identification of aerobic actinomycetes to genus level,

Data adapted from McNeil and Brown ( ).

+, 90% or more of strains are positive; −, 90% or more of strains are negative; V, 11 to 89% of strains are positive; O, oxidative; F, fermentative; NT, not tested; DAP, diaminopimelic acid; Mad, madurose; Arab, arabinose; gal, galactose; xyl, xylose; W, weakly or partially acid-fast.

As determined by the methodology of Becker et al. ( ) for whole-cell DAP and sugars.

Genus is motile.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Specimen Examination and Primary Isolation, p 246-253. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch6.1
Generic image for table
Table 6.1–2

Laboratory level I and II qualifying procedures

Procedures not performed by level I laboratories are referred to a level II laboratory or a recognized reference facility.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Specimen Examination and Primary Isolation, p 246-253. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch6.1

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