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Chapter 8.6 : Presumptive Identification Tests for Yeasts Isolated on Primary Culture

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Abstract:

All of the tests described in this procedure ( Table 8.6–1 ) are considered presumptive because they do not test a characteristic of a species that is unique to that species. Some of the tests do have high specificity values, which would make the test sufficient for the purpose of medical management of some clinical situations (e.g., intertrigenous candidiasis due to ) but insufficient for others (e.g., fungemia due to ).Presumptive tests also are generally restricted in the range of species they identify. The results of two different physiological tests with high specificity for a particular species may be appropriate for identifying the species presumptively. However, there are instances when two different species elicit identical positive reactions in both tests. Mycologists and clinical microbiologists must be aware of these obfuscations. For example, by far the most frequently encountered sp. in the clinical setting, and are both germ tube positive and positive for the enzymes β-galactosaminidase and l-proline aminopeptidase ( ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Presumptive Identification Tests for Yeasts Isolated on Primary Culture, p 425-434. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.6
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Figures

Image of Figure 8.6–1
Figure 8.6–1

Algorithm for identification of on primary culture. Follow specimen guidelines for significance for specimens submitted for routine bacteriology cultures. When a protocol requires screening tests or identification for yeasts, proceed as outlined in this diagram. If the yeast is from a sterile body fluid or blood, two tests must be positive to identify or (e.g., if the screen was positive, perform a germ tube test). Note that is a rare to occasional bloodstream pathogen (usually associated with catheters) depending on its endemic density. To discriminate between and use growth at 45°C (presumptive, as not all isolates of tolerate this temperature and not all isolates of are inhibited by it) or, more definitively, assimilation tests ( procedure 8.8). If yeasts are seen in a blood culture bottle, subculture the bottles to CHROMagar to check for purity. SGA, Sabouraud glucose agar; QNS, quantity not sufficient.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Presumptive Identification Tests for Yeasts Isolated on Primary Culture, p 425-434. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.6
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Image of Figure 8.6–2
Figure 8.6–2

Identification of the most common clinically important species isolated from sterile body specimens. Algorithm assumes that CHROMagar was included in the primary set up media. Y, yes; N, no.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Presumptive Identification Tests for Yeasts Isolated on Primary Culture, p 425-434. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.6
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References

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1. Fenn, J. P.,, E. Billetdeaux,, H. Segal,, L. Skodack-Jones,, P. E. Padilla,, M. Bale,, and K. Carroll. 1999. Comparison of four methodologies for rapid and cost-effective identification of Candida glabrata. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:33873389.
2. Freydière, A.-M.,, R. Guinet,, and P. Boiron. 2001. Yeast identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory: phenotypical methods. Med. Mycol. 39:933.
3. Spicer, A. D.,, and K. C. Hazen. 1992. Rapid confirmation of Candida albicans identification by combination of two presumptive tests. Med. Microbiol. Lett. 1:284289.
4. Carr-Scarborough Microbiologicals, Inc. 1998. Package insert no. 1423-1290. Carr-Scarborough Microbiologicals, Inc., Decatur, GA (C. albicans screen).
5. Hopfer, R. L.,, and D. Gröschel. 1975. Six-hour pigmentation test for the identification of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2:9698.
6. Iatron Laboratories. Serologic identification of Candida and Cryptococcus. Package insert. Candida Check, RM302-K. Iatron Laboratories, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
7. Remel. 1998. Technical information bulletin TI no. 21128. Remel, Lenexa, KS (Caffeic acid screen).
8. Remel.1997. Package insert. Rapid trehalose assimilation broth, TI no. 64856. Remel, Lenexa, KS.
1.. Hopkins, J. M.,, and G. A. Land. 1977. Simple method for determining nitrate utilization by yeasts. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:497500.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 8.6–1

Presumptive identification tests for yeasts on primary culture

In this handbook.

This complex consists of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. stellatoidea (obsolete), and Candida africanum sp. nom. inval.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Presumptive Identification Tests for Yeasts Isolated on Primary Culture, p 425-434. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.6
Generic image for table

Variable depending on strain

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Presumptive Identification Tests for Yeasts Isolated on Primary Culture, p 425-434. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.6

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