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Chapter 8.9 : Mould Identification

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Abstract:

“Mould” is an informal term signifying a fungus growing mostly or entirely in the form of diffuse filaments and usually producing an asexual reproductive state or a sexual state that is not a large, complex fruiting body. Most such fungi are recognized as asexual states or asexual species (the former have known sexual states, while the latter do not) related to various fungi in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, members of the phylum Zygomycota generally grow as moulds.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Figures

Image of Figure 8.9-A1
Figure 8.9-A1

Sporangiophores and sporangia of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A2
Figure 8.9-A2

Sporangiophores and rhizoids of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A3
Figure 8.9-A3

Simple arthroconidia of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A4
Figure 8.9-A4

Alternate arthroconidia of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A5
Figure 8.9-A5

Macroconidium (left) and microconidia (right) of (schematic)

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A6
Figure 8.9-A6

Blastoconidia of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A7
Figure 8.9-A7

Sympodially proliferating conidiogenous cell with blastoconidia of in rosette (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Figure 8.9-A8

Phialide of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A9
Figure 8.9-A9

structures.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A10
Figure 8.9-A10

Annellides of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A11
Figure 8.9-A11

Pycnidia of face view and cross section (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A12
Figure 8.9-A12

Ascoma structures of (one of several sexual states of spp.) (schematic) as seen at different magnifications (cleistothecium with asci, as seen at ×100; ascus with ascospores, as seen at ×400; released ascospores, as seen at ×1,000).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A13
Figure 8.9-A13

Cell division in a dikaryotic basidiomycetous hypha, showing development of a clamp connection.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A14
Figure 8.9-A14

Basidium and basidiospores.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Figure 8.9-A15

Terminal chlamydospore.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A16
Figure 8.9-A16

Chain of symmetrical chlamydospores.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A17
Figure 8.9-A17

Chain of asymmetrical chlamydospores (cow's teeth).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A18
Figure 8.9-A18

Pedicels (matchstick stalks) of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A19
Figure 8.9-A19

Macroconidia of (schematic) with cytoplasmic compartments indicated by dotted lines.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A20
Figure 8.9-A20

Helical seta (spiral appendage) of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A21
Figure 8.9-A21

Reflexive branching of (schematic)

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A22
Figure 8.9-A22

Swollen nailhead hyphae of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A23
Figure 8.9-A23

Hypha with pectinate branching as seen in (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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Image of Figure 8.9-A24
Figure 8.9-A24

Lateral hyphal “projection” or diverticulum of (schematic).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
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References

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10. Hoffman, K.,, S. Discher,, and K. Voigt. 2007. Revision of the genus Absidia (Mucorales, Zygomycetes) based on physiological, phylogenetic, and morphological characters; thermotolerant Absidia spp. form a coherent group, Mycocladiaceae fam. nov. Mycol.Res.111:11691183.
11. Iwen, P. C.,, L. Sigler,, S. Tarantolo,, D. A. Sutton,, M. G. Rinaldi,, R. P. Lackner,, D. I. McCarthy,, and S. H. Hinrichs. 2000. Pulmonary infection caused by Gymnascella hyalinospora in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:375381.
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16. Moore, M. K. 1988. Morphological and physiological studies of isolates of Hendersonula toruloidea Nattrass cultured from human skin and nail samples J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 26:2539.
17. Padhye, A. A.,, G. Smith,, P. G. Standard,, D. McLaughlin,, and L. Kaufman. 1994. Comparative evaluation of chemiluminescent DNA probe assays and exoantigen tests for rapid identification of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Coccidioides immitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:867870.
18. Ponikau, J. U.,, D. A. Sherris,, E. B. Kern,, H. A. Homburger,, E. Frigas,, T. A. Gaffey,, and G. D. Roberts. 1999. The diagnosis and incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis. Mayo Clin. Proc.74:877884.
19. Sewell, D. L., 1992. Quality control, p. 13.2.113.2.35. In H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, vol. 2. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
20. Sigler, L., 1997. Chrysosporium and molds resembling dermatophytes, p. 261311. In J. Kane,, R. C. Summerbell,, L. Sigler,, S. Krajden,, and G. Land (ed.), Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
21. St. Germain, G.,, and R. C. Summerbell. 1996. Identifying Filamentous Fungi. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
22. Summerbell, R. C. 1993. The benomyl test as a fundamental diagnostic method for medical mycology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:572577.
23. Summerbell, R. C., 1997. Nondermatophytic molds causing dermatophytosis-like nail and skin infection, p. 213259. In J. Kane,, R. C. Summerbell,, L. Sigler,, S. Krajden,, and G. Land (ed.), Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
24. Summerbell, R. C. 1997. Epidemiology and ecology of onychomycosis. Dermatology 194 (Suppl. 1):3236.
25. Summerbell, R. C., 2000. Form and function in the evolution of dermatophytes, p. 3043. In R. K. S. Kushwaha, and J. Guarro (ed.), Biology of Dermatophytes and Other Keratinophilic Fungi. Revista Iberoamericana de Micologá, Bilbao, Spain.
26. Summerbell, R. C.,, and J. Kane,. 1997. Physiological and other special tests for identifying dermatophytes, p. 4577. In J. Kane,, R. C. Summerbell,, L. Sigler,, S. Krajden,, and G. Land (ed.), Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
27. Walsh, T. J.,, D. H. Larone,, W. A. Schell,, and T. G. Mitchell,. 2003. Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, and other dimorphic fungi causing systemic mycoses, p. 17811797. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
28. De Hoog, G. S.,, J. Guarro,, J. Gené,, and M. J. Figueras. 2000. Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
29. Domsch, K.-H.,, W. Gams,, and T.-H. Anderson. 1993. Compendium of Soil Fungi. IHW-Verlag, Eching, Germany.
30. Kane, J.,, R. C. Summerbell,, L. Sigler,, S. Krajden,, and G. Land. 1997. Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
31. Larone, D. H. 2002. Medically Important Fungi, 4th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
32. Midgley, G.,, Y. N. Clayton,, and R. J. Hay. 1997. Diagnosis in Color Medical Mycology. Mosby, St. Louis, MO.
33. Murray, P. R.,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.). 2007. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
34. Odds, F. C. 1991. Sabouraud(’s) agar. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 24:355359.
35. Samson, R. A.,, E. S. Hoekstra,, J. C. Frisvad,, and O. Filtenborg. 2001. Introduction to Food-and Airborne Fungi, 6th ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmel cultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
36. Sandin, R. L.,, G. S. Hall,, D. L. Longworth,, and J. A. Washington. 1993. Unpredictability of commercially available exoantigen culture confirmation tests in confirming the identity of five Blastomyces dermatitidis isolates. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 99:542545.
37. St. Germain, G.,, and R. C. Summerbell. 1996. Identifying Filamentous Fungi. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
38. Summerbell, R. C.,, and J. Kane,. 1997. The genera Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, p. 131191. In J. Kane,, R. C. Summerbell,, L. Sigler,, S. Krajden,, and G. Land (ed.), Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
39. Summerbell, R. C.,, R. A. Haugland,, A. Li,, and A. K. Gupta. 1999. rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 sequences of asexual, anthropophilic dermatophytes related to Trichophyton rubrum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:40054111.
1. Aly, R. 1994. Culture media for growing dermatophytes. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 31:S107S108.
2. Kaminsky, G. W. 1985. The routine use of modified Borelli’s lactrimel agar (MBLA). Mycopathologia 91:5759.
3. Kane, J.,, R. C. Summerbell,, L. Sigler,, S. Krajden,, and G. Land. 1997. Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes, p. 324. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
4. Rinaldi, M. G. 1982. Use of potato flakes agar in clinical mycology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:11591160.
5. Sigler, L., 1997. Chrysosporium and molds resembling dermatophytes, p. 261311. In J. Kane,, R. C. Summerbell,, L. Sigler,, S. Krajden,, and G. Land (ed.), Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.
6. Summerbell, R. C.,, and J. Kane,. 1997. Physiological and other special tests for identifying dermatophytes, p. 4577. In J. Kane,, R. C. Summerbell,, L. Sigler,, S. Krajden,, and G. Land (ed.), Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes. Star Publishing, Belmont, CA.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 8.9-1

Definitions of terms used to describe morphological structures

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-2

Phenotypic characteristics useful for identification of Zygomycota

In 2007, Hibbett et al. ( ) revised the Zygomycota, and the medically important species were placed in the Mucormycotina, order Mucorales, and was placed in the Entomophthoromycotina, order Entomophthorales.

In 2007, Hoffman et al. ( ) revised the genus and the medically important species, including have been grouped into a new genus,

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-3a

Description of terms for conidial ontogeny and reproductive structures of the Ascomycota

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-3b

Description of terms for conidial ontogeny and reproductive structures of the Ascomycota

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-4

Common media used for moulds

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9–5a

Temperature tests commonly used in identification of clinically important moulds

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9–5b

Temperature tests commonly used in identification of clinically important moulds

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-6

Cycloheximide responses of common or critical clinical laboratory moulds (including abundant contaminants)

Semitolerant, restricted in colony growth rate but not killed at 100 mg of cycloheximide liter; usually killed or strongly restricted at 500 mg liter.

Normally nonpathogenic, usually insignificant when isolated but rare opportunistic infection is possible.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-7

Distinguishing features for preliminary identification of mould phases of dimorphic systemic pathogens

See reference for detailed descriptions of important mimic fungi.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-8

Particulate phases of dimorphic fungi as seen in in vitro conversion and their differentiating characteristics

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-9

Dermatophyte micromorphological structures

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-10a

Phenotypic identification characteristics of common and occasionally seen dermatophytes, as well as rare species potentially used in QC trials

Common.

Uncommon, but likely to be seen in large laboratories in the Americas and Europe.

Unlikely ever to be seen except in proficiency test or region of endemicity.

Technical taxonomic note. This ecological category includes anthropophilic but not zoophilic forms both of sensu Gräser et al. ( ) and of anamorphs phylogenetically clustered with These forms were previously collectively called by the nomenclaturally invalid name “ var. ” by some workers. Although this name was conceived as encompassing all anthropophilic -like isolates, this heterogeneous group cannot be placed under any single name except sensu lato (species aggregate concept of as used in the present work). Recent phylogenetic work has not been clear on this point, because the existence of rat and chinchilla strains, as well as anthropophilic strains, within the concept of sensu Gräser et al. was not explicitly mentioned.

Mod., moderately.

Pos, positive; Neg, negative.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-10b

Phenotypic identification characteristics of common and occasionally seen dermatophytes, as well as rare species potentially used in QC trials

Common.

Uncommon, but likely to be seen in large laboratories in the Americas and Europe.

Unlikely ever to be seen except in proficiency test or region of endemicity.

Technical taxonomic note. This ecological category includes anthropophilic but not zoophilic forms both of sensu Gräser et al. ( ) and of anamorphs phylogenetically clustered with These forms were previously collectively called by the nomenclaturally invalid name “ var. ” by some workers. Although this name was conceived as encompassing all anthropophilic -like isolates, this heterogeneous group cannot be placed under any single name except sensu lato (species aggregate concept of as used in the present work). Recent phylogenetic work has not been clear on this point, because the existence of rat and chinchilla strains, as well as anthropophilic strains, within the concept of sensu Gräser et al. was not explicitly mentioned.

Mod., moderately.

Pos, positive; Neg, negative.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-10c

Phenotypic identification characteristics of common and occasionally seen dermatophytes, as well as rare species potentially used in QC trials

Common.

Uncommon, but likely to be seen in large laboratories in the Americas and Europe.

Unlikely ever to be seen except in proficiency test or region of endemicity.

Technical taxonomic note. This ecological category includes anthropophilic but not zoophilic forms both of sensu Gräser et al. ( ) and of anamorphs phylogenetically clustered with These forms were previously collectively called by the nomenclaturally invalid name “ var. ” by some workers. Although this name was conceived as encompassing all anthropophilic -like isolates, this heterogeneous group cannot be placed under any single name except sensu lato (species aggregate concept of as used in the present work). Recent phylogenetic work has not been clear on this point, because the existence of rat and chinchilla strains, as well as anthropophilic strains, within the concept of sensu Gräser et al. was not explicitly mentioned.

Mod., moderately.

Pos, positive; Neg, negative.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-10d

Phenotypic identification characteristics of common and occasionally seen dermatophytes, as well as rare species potentially used in QC trials

Common.

Uncommon, but likely to be seen in large laboratories in the Americas and Europe.

Unlikely ever to be seen except in proficiency test or region of endemicity.

Technical taxonomic note. This ecological category includes anthropophilic but not zoophilic forms both of sensu Gräser et al. ( ) and of anamorphs phylogenetically clustered with These forms were previously collectively called by the nomenclaturally invalid name “ var. ” by some workers. Although this name was conceived as encompassing all anthropophilic -like isolates, this heterogeneous group cannot be placed under any single name except sensu lato (species aggregate concept of as used in the present work). Recent phylogenetic work has not been clear on this point, because the existence of rat and chinchilla strains, as well as anthropophilic strains, within the concept of sensu Gräser et al. was not explicitly mentioned.

Mod., moderately.

Pos, positive; Neg, negative.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-10e

Phenotypic identification characteristics of common and occasionally seen dermatophytes, as well as rare species potentially used in QC trials

Common.

Uncommon, but likely to be seen in large laboratories in the Americas and Europe.

Unlikely ever to be seen except in proficiency test or region of endemicity.

Technical taxonomic note. This ecological category includes anthropophilic but not zoophilic forms both of sensu Gräser et al. ( ) and of anamorphs phylogenetically clustered with These forms were previously collectively called by the nomenclaturally invalid name “ var. ” by some workers. Although this name was conceived as encompassing all anthropophilic -like isolates, this heterogeneous group cannot be placed under any single name except sensu lato (species aggregate concept of as used in the present work). Recent phylogenetic work has not been clear on this point, because the existence of rat and chinchilla strains, as well as anthropophilic strains, within the concept of sensu Gräser et al. was not explicitly mentioned.

Mod., moderately.

Pos, positive; Neg, negative.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-10f

Phenotypic identification characteristics of common and occasionally seen dermatophytes, as well as rare species potentially used in QC trials

Common.

Uncommon, but likely to be seen in large laboratories in the Americas and Europe.

Unlikely ever to be seen except in proficiency test or region of endemicity.

Technical taxonomic note. This ecological category includes anthropophilic but not zoophilic forms both of sensu Gräser et al. ( ) and of anamorphs phylogenetically clustered with These forms were previously collectively called by the nomenclaturally invalid name “ var. ” by some workers. Although this name was conceived as encompassing all anthropophilic -like isolates, this heterogeneous group cannot be placed under any single name except sensu lato (species aggregate concept of as used in the present work). Recent phylogenetic work has not been clear on this point, because the existence of rat and chinchilla strains, as well as anthropophilic strains, within the concept of sensu Gräser et al. was not explicitly mentioned.

Mod., moderately.

Pos, positive; Neg, negative.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-10g

Phenotypic identification characteristics of common and occasionally seen dermatophytes, as well as rare species potentially used in QC trials

Common.

Uncommon, but likely to be seen in large laboratories in the Americas and Europe.

Unlikely ever to be seen except in proficiency test or region of endemicity.

Technical taxonomic note. This ecological category includes anthropophilic but not zoophilic forms both of sensu Gräser et al. ( ) and of anamorphs phylogenetically clustered with These forms were previously collectively called by the nomenclaturally invalid name “ var. ” by some workers. Although this name was conceived as encompassing all anthropophilic -like isolates, this heterogeneous group cannot be placed under any single name except sensu lato (species aggregate concept of as used in the present work). Recent phylogenetic work has not been clear on this point, because the existence of rat and chinchilla strains, as well as anthropophilic strains, within the concept of sensu Gräser et al. was not explicitly mentioned.

Mod., moderately.

Pos, positive; Neg, negative.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9
Generic image for table
Table 8.9-11

Most common fungi other than dermatophytes and repeatedly and rigorously implicated as causal agents of onychomycosis

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Mould Identification, p 456-514. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch8.9

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