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Chapter 9.4 : Special Stains for Coccidia and Microsporidia

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Special Stains for Coccidia and Microsporidia, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

and () species have been recognized as causes of severe diarrhea in immunocompromised hosts, but they can also cause diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts. Oocysts in clinical specimens may be difficult to detect without special staining. has also been reported to be acid fast. Modified acid-fast stains are recommended for demonstrating these organisms. Unlike the Ziehl-Neelsen modified acid-fast stain, the modified Kinyoun acid-fast stain does not require heating the reagents used for staining and uses a mild decolorizer ( ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Special Stains for Coccidia and Microsporidia, p 596-621. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.4
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Figures

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(Top) oocysts; sporozoites are visible within some oocysts. (Bottom) () immature oocyst; note that the entire oocyst stains with modified acid-fast stain.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Special Stains for Coccidia and Microsporidia, p 596-621. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.4
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(Left) oocysts (note variation in staining). (Right) The large, clear object is a oocyst (8 to 10 µm); the darker object to the right is a oocyst (4 to 6 µm). Note that tends to look like wrinkled cellophane when it does not stain well.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Special Stains for Coccidia and Microsporidia, p 596-621. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.4
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References

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1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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2. Ignatius, R.,, M. Lehmann,, K. Miksits,, T. Regnath,, M. Arvand,, E. Engelmann,, U. Futh,, H. Hahn,, and J. Wagner. 1997. A new acid-fast trichrome stain for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidial species in stool specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 446449.
18. Moura, H.,, J. L. Nunes Da Silva,, F. C. Sodre,, P. Brasil,, K. Wallmo,, S. Wahlquist,, S. Wallace,, G. P. Croppo,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1996. Gram-chromatrope: a new technique that enhances detection of microsporidial spores in clinical samples. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 43:94S95S.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Visvesvara, G. S.,, H. Moura,, E. Kovacs-Nace,, S. Wallace,, and M. L. Eberhard. 1997. Uniform staining of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal smears by a modified safranin technique with microwave heating. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:730733.

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