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Chapter 9.6 : Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System

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Abstract:

The clear-cellulose-tape preparation is the most widely used procedure for the detection of human pinworm infections ( ). Adult worms inhabit the large intestine and rectum; however, the eggs are not normally found in fecal material. The adult female migrates out the anal opening and deposits the eggs on the perianal skin, usually during the night. The eggs, and occasionally the adult female worms, stick to the sticky surface of the cellulose tape. These cellulose tape preparations are submitted to the laboratory, where they are examined under the microscope. Commercial collection systems are also available.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6
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Figures

Image of Figure 9.6.1-1
Figure 9.6.1-1

Collection of eggs by the cellulose tape method (from reference ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6
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Image of Figure 9.6.1–2
Figure 9.6.1–2

Diagram of a commercial kit (Evergreen Scientific) for use in sampling the perianal area for the presence of pinworm eggs. On the left is the vial containing the sampler, which has sticky tape around the end. Once this is applied to the perianal area and eggs are picked up on the tape, the label area is placed at one end of the slide. The sticky tape is rolled down the slide and attaches to the glass. This device is easy to use and provides an area sufficient for adequate sampling. A minimum of four to six consecutive negative tapes are required to rule out a pinworm infection; most laboratories are accepting four rather than requesting the full six. (From reference .)

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6
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Image of Figure 9.6.4-1
Figure 9.6.4-1

Diagram of Entero-Test capsule (from reference ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6
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Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6
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References

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1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Graham, C. F. 1941. A device for the diagnosis of Enterobius vermicularis. Am. J. Trop. Med. 21:159161.
3. Markey, R. L. 1950. A Vaseline swab for the diagnosis of Enterobius eggs. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 20:493.
4. Melvin, D. M.,, and M. M. Brooke. 1982. Laboratory Procedures for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites, 3rd ed. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare publication no. (CDC) 82-8282. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Melvin, D. M.,, and M. M. Brooke, 1985. Laboratory Procedures for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services publication no. (CDC) 85-8282. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
1. Beal, C. B.,, P. Viens,, R. G. L. Grant,, and J. M. Hughes. 1970. A new technique for sampling duodenal contents. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 19:349352.
2. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Gordts, B.,, W. Hemelhof,, K. Van Tilborgh,, P. Retore,, S. Cadranel,, and J. Butzler. 1985. Evaluation of a new method for routine in vitro cultivation of Giardia lamblia from human duodenal fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22:702704.
4. Liebman, W. M.,, and P. Rosenthal. 1980. Comparative study of stool examination, duodenal aspirations, and pediatric Entero-Test for giardiasis in children. J. Pediatr. 96:278.
5. Markell, E. K.,, D. T. John,, and W. A. Krotoski. 1999. Markell and Voge's Medical Parasitology, 8th ed., The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
6. Whiteside, C. L. 1984. Enteric coccidiosis among patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33:10651072.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Markell, E. K.,, D. T. John,, and W. A. Krotoski. 1999. Markell and Voge's Medical Parasitology, 8th ed. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
17. Eschenbach, D.,, H. M. Pollock,, and J. Schachter,. 1983. Cumitech 17, Laboratory Diagnosis of Female Genital Tract Infections. Coordinating ed., S. J. Rubin. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
18. Holmes, K. K.,, P. Mardh,, P. F. Sparling,, and P. J. Wiesner. 1990. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
20. Eschenbach, D.,, H. M. Pollock,, and J. Schachter,. 1983. Cumitech 17, Laboratory Diagnosis of Female Genital Tract Infections. Coordinating ed., S. J. Rubin. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
21. Holmes, K. K.,, P. Mardh,, P. F. Sparling,, and P. J. Wiesner. 1990. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
23. Eschenbach, D.,, H. M. Pollock,, and J. Schachter,. 1983. Cumitech 17, Laboratory Diagnosis of Female Genital Tract Infections. Coordinating ed., S. J. Rubin. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
24. Holmes, K. K.,, P. Mardh. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Peters, P. A.,, A. A. F. Mahmoud,, K. S. Warren,, J. H. Ouma,, and T. K. Arap Siongok. 1976. Field studies of a rapid, accurate means of quantifying Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine samples. Bull. W. H. O. 54:159162.
27. Nathan, M. B.,, A. Lambourne,, and S. Monteil. 1982. Evaluation of a membrane (Nuclepore) filtration method using capillary blood for the detection of microfilariae. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 76:339345.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 9.6.2-1

Quantitation of parasites, human cells, yeast cells, and artifacts in specimens from the intestinal tract

In general, protozoa are not quantitated on the laboratory slip (exception: ), but human cells, yeast cells, and artifacts like Charcot-Leyden crystals are normally reported and quantitated.

Wet preparation. Coverslips were 22 by 22 mm.

Polyvinyl alcohol smear.

Wet preparation.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6
Generic image for table
Table 9.6.3-1

Quantitation of parasites, human cells, yeast cells, and artifacts in specimens from the intestinal tract

Ingeneral, protozoa are not quantitated on the laboratory slip (exception :), buthuman cells, yeast cells ,and artifacts like Charcot-Leyden crystals are normally reported and quantitated.

Wet preparations. Coverslips were 22 by 22 mm.

PVA smear.

Wet preparation.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6
Generic image for table
Table 9.6.4-1

Quantitation of parasites, human cells, yeast cells, and artifacts in specimens from the intestinal tract

In general, protozoa are not quantitated on the laboratory slip (exception: ); however, human cells, yeast cells, and artifacts like Charcot-Leyden crystals are normally reported and quantitated.

Wet preparation. Coverslip was 22 by 22 mm.

PVA smear.

Wet preparation.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6
Generic image for table
Table 9.6.5-1

Quantitation of parasites, human cells, yeast cells, and artifacts in specimens from the intestinal tract

In general, protozoa are not quantitated on the laboratory slip (exception: ), but human cells, yeast cells, and artifacts like Charcot-Leyden crystals are normally reported and quantitated.

Wet preparation. Coverslips are 22 by 22 mm.

PVA smear

Wet preparation

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6
Generic image for table

Diagnostic differential characteristics

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6
Generic image for table

Characterization of schistosome eggs

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Other Specimens from the Intestinal Tract and the Urogenital System, p 646-679. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.6

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