1887

Chapter 9.8 : Detection of Blood Parasites

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Detection of Blood Parasites, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817435/9781555815271_Chap9_8-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817435/9781555815271_Chap9_8-2.gif

Abstract:

During some stages in their life cycle, spp. (malaria), spp., spp., , and the filariae are detectable in human blood. and species are found within the RBCs; trypanosomes and microfilariae, the larval stage of filariae, are found outside the RBCs; and amastigotes are occasionally found within monocytes. Trypanosomes and microfilariae, which frequently are present in low numbers, exhibit motility in freshly collected blood films, and this can aid in their detection. However, species identifications of all blood parasites are usually made from either or both of two types of stained blood films: a thin film and a thick film. These films can be made from whole or anticoagulated blood or from the sediment of a variety of procedures designed to concentrate trypanosomes and microfilariae in the blood. Although the films are clearest when stained with Giemsa stain, many infections are detected and diagnosed by using Wright's stain. Delafield's hematoxylin is used to enhance the morphological features of microfilariae.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Detection of Blood Parasites, p 696-738. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.8
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 9.8.4–1
Figure 9.8.4–1

Method of thick-thin combination blood film preparation. (a) Position of drop of EDTA blood; (b) position of applicator stick in contact with blood and glass slide; (c) rotation of applicator stick; (d) completed thick-thin combination blood film prior to staining. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; from reference .)

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Detection of Blood Parasites, p 696-738. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817435.chap9.8
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lindscott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech 46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3.NCCLS. 1991. Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Skin Puncture, vol. 11, no. 11, H4-A3. NCCLS, Villanova, PA.
4.NCCLS. 1991. Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture, vol. 11, no. 10, H3-A3. NCCLS, Villanova, PA.
5.NCCLS. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lind-scott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech 46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3.NCCLS. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lindscott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech 46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3.NCCLS. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
4. Wilcox, A. 1960. Manual for the Microscopical Diagnosis of Malaria in Man. U.S. Public Health Service publication no. 796. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. (Out of print.).
13. Ash, L. R.,, and T. C. Orihel. 1987. Parasites: a Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL.
14. Garcia, L. S. 2009. Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia, L. S. 2009. Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lindscott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech 46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4.NCCLS. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
1. Brooke, M. M.,, and A. W. Donaldson. 1950. Use of a surface-active agent to prevent transfer of malarial parasites between blood films during mass staining procedures. J. Parasitol. 36:84.
2. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lindscott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4. Melvin, D. M.,, and M. M. Brooke. 1955. Triton X-100inGiemsastainingofbloodpara-sites. Stain Technol. 30:269275.
5. Wilcox, A. 1960 Manual for the Microscopical Diagnosis of Malaria in Man. U. S. Public Health Service publication no. 796. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. (Out of print.).
6. Ash, L. R.,, and T. C. Orihel. 1987. Parasites: a Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL.
7. Beaver, P. C.,, R. C. Jung,, and E. W. Cupp. 1984. Clinical Parasitology, 9th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
8.NCCLS. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lindscott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech 46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Smith, J. W.,, and M. S. Barlett,. 1991. Diagnostic parasitology: introduction and methods, p. 701716. In A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler, Jr.,, K. L. Herrmann,, H. D. Isenberg,, and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
4. Beaver, P. C.,, R. C. Jung,, and E. W. Cupp. 1984. Clinical Parasitology, 9th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
5.NCCLS. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
1. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lindscott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech 46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Hansheid, T. 1999. Diagnosis of malaria: a review of alternatives to conventional microscopy. Clin. Lab. Haematol. 21:235245.
4. Homel, M.,, and H. M. Gilles,. 1998. Malaria, p. 361409. In F. E. G. Cox,, J. P. Krier,, and D. Wakelin (ed.), Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 9th ed. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
5. Milhouse, W. K.,, and D. E. Kyle,. 1998. Introduction to the modes of action of and mechanisms of resistance to antimalarials, p. 303316. In F. E. G. Cox,, J. P. Krier,, and D. Wakelin (ed.), Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 9th ed. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
6.NCCLS. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
7. Wilkinson, R. J.,, J. L. Brown,, G. Pasvol,, P. L. Chiodini,, and R. N. Davidson. 1994. Severe falciparum malaria: predicting the effect of exchange transfusion. Q. J. Med. 87:553557.
1. Ash, L. R.,, and T. C. Orihel. 1987. Parasites: a Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL.
2. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Mackie, T. T.,, G. W. Hunter,, and C. B. Worth. 1945. A Manual of Tropical Medicine. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
4. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lindscott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech 46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
5.NCCLS. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
1. Ash, L. R.,, and T. C. Orihel. 1987. Parasites: a Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL.
2. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lindscott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech 46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4. Young, C. W.,, and H. Van Sant. 1923. Leishmania donovani in the peripheral blood. J. Exp. Med. 38:233.
1. Long, G. W.,, T. R. Jones,, L. S. Rickman,, R. Trimmer,, and S. D. Hoffman. 1991. Acridine orange detection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: relationship between sensitivity and optical configuration. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 44:402405.
2. Rickman, L. S.,, G. W. Long,, R. Oberst,, A. Caranban,, R. Sangalang,, J. I. Smith,, J. D. Chulay,, and S. L. Hoffman. 1989. Rapid diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange staining of centrifuged parasites. Lancet i:6871.
3. Spielman, A.,, J. P. Perrone,, A. Teklehaimanot,, F. Balcha,, S. C. Wardlaw,, and R. A. Levine. 1988. Malaria diagnosis by direct observation of centrifuged samples of blood. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 39:337342.
1. Ash, L. R.,, and T. C. Orihei. 1987. Parasites: a Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL.
2. Dennis, D. T.,, and B. H. Kean. 1971. Isolation of microfilariae: report of a new method. J. Parasitol. 57:11461147.
3. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
54. Beaver, P. C.,, R. C. Jung,, and E. W. Cupp. 1984. Clinical Parasitology, 9th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
55. Smith, J. W.,, and M. S. Bartlett,. 1991. Diagnostic parasitology: introduction and methods, p. 701716. In A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler, Jr.,, K. L. Herrmann,, H. D. Isenberg,, and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
1. Ash, L. R.,, and T. C. Orihel. 1987. Parasites: a Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL.
2. Beaver, P. C.,, R. C. Jung,, and E. W. Cupp. 1984. Clinical Parasitology, 9th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
3. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lindscott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech 46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
5. Knott, J. 1939. A method for making microfilarial surveys on day blood. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33:191196.
6.NCCLS. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
1. Ash, L. R.,, and T. C. Orihel. 1987. Parasites: a Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL.
2. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Garcia, L. S.,, S. P. Johnston,, A. J. Lindscott,, and R. Y. Shimizu,. 2008. Cumitech 46, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4. Markell, E. K.,, D. T. John,, and W. A. Krotoski. 1999. Markell and Voge's Medical Parasitology, 8th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
5.NCCLS. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.

Tables

Generic image for table
Untitled

Advantages of thick and thin blood films

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Detection of Blood Parasites, p 696-738. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.8
Generic image for table
Untitled

Potential problems using EDTA anticoagulant for the preparation of thin and thick blood films

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Detection of Blood Parasites, p 696-738. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.8
Generic image for table
Table 9.8.7-1

Parasitemia determined from conventional light microscopy: clinical correlation

Adapted from references and .

TBF, thick blood film; THBF, thin blood film.

World Health Organization criteria for severe malaria are parasitemia of >10,000/µl and severe anemia (hemoglobin <5 g/liter). Prognosis is poor if >20% of parasites are pigment-containing trophozoites and schizonts and/or if >5% of neutrophils contain visible pigment.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Detection of Blood Parasites, p 696-738. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.8
Generic image for table
Table 9.8.7-2

Malaria resistance

Adapted from references and .

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Detection of Blood Parasites, p 696-738. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.8
Generic image for table
Untitled

Advantages and disadvantages of buffy coat films

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Detection of Blood Parasites, p 696-738. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch9.8

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error