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Chapter 23 : Biocides in the Kitchen

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Abstract:

Studies in the United Kingdom on at Unilever Research, Sharnbrook, and King's College, London, have also demonstrated that cross-resistance between antibiotics and biocides does occur, particularly in clinical strains. Samples were taken from sinks and other surfaces in the kitchen and bathroom and from soil likely to be tracked into the home. Bacteria targeted in these samples included coagulase-negative spp., , spp., spp., and . The investigators screened all 1,238 isolates for antibiotic sensitivity and tested selected resistant and sensitive isolates against triclosan, pine oil, parachlorometaxylenol, and quaternary ammonium compounds. The results indicated that there was no significant or meaningful correlation between the antibiotic resistance patterns of any of the gram-positive or gram-negative potential human pathogens and their insensitivity to any of the four antimicrobial substances. More target bacteria was recovered from homes not treated with antibacterial products than from those where they were in use. All isolates were sensitive to oxacillin and vancomycin, all isolates were sensitive to ampicillin and vancomycin, and all and isolates were sensitive to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. These results certainly indicated that the contribution to antibiotic resistance from biocidal warfare in the kitchen may be considerably less than some commentators have alleged.

Citation: Dixon B. 2009. Biocides in the Kitchen, p 105-109. In Animalcules. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817442.ch23

Key Concept Ranking

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
0.453369
Staphylococcus aureus
0.41884503
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
0.418845
0.453369
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References

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1. Cole, E. C.,, R. M. Addison,, J. R. Rubino,, K. E. Leese,, P. D. Dulaney,, M. S. Newell,, J. Wilkins,, D. J. Gaber,, T. Wineinger,, and D. A. Criger. 2003. Investigation of antibiotic and antibacterial agent cross-resistance in target bacteria from homes of antibacterial product users and nonusers. J. Appl. Microbiol. 95:664676.
2. Lambert, R. J. W.,, J. Joynson,, and B. Forbes. 2001. The relationships and susceptibilities of some industrial, laboratory and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to some antibiotics and biocides. J. Appl. Microbiol. 91:972984.
3. Levy, C. W.,, A. Roujeinikova,, S. Sedelnikova,, P. J. Baker,, A. R. Stuitje,, A. R. Slabas,, D. W. Rice,, and J. B. Rafferty. 1999. Molecular basis of triclosan activity. Nature 398:383384.
4. Levy, S. B. 1998. The challenge of antibiotic resistance. Sci. Am. 278(3):4653.
5. McMurry, L. M.,, P. F. McDermott,, and S. B. Levy. 1999. Genetic evidence that InhA of Mycobacterium smegmatis is a target for triclosan. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:711713.
6. Moken, M. C.,, L. M. McMurry,, and S. B. Levy. 1997. Selection of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) mutants of Escherichia coli by using the disinfectant pine oil: roles of the mar and acrAB loci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:27702772.

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