Chapter 3 : Biofilm Development

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Experimental approaches primarily focused on genetic and microscopic techniques have laid the foundation for our current models of bacterial biofilm formation. This work has enabled researchers to define biofilm formation as a process that consists of specific stages. The biofilm developmental cycle is believed to include (i) initial attachment of microbes to a surface or each other, (ii) formation of microcolonies, (iii) maturation of the biofilm, and (iv) dispersal of the biofilm (e.g., reference ). The different biofilm stages include bacterial physiology and phenotypic responses suggestive of the existence of a unique biofilm biology which is not found for planktonic bacteria.

Citation: Tolker-Nielsen T. 2015. Biofilm Development, p 51-66. In Ghannoum M, Parsek M, Whiteley M, Mukherjee P (ed), Microbial Biofilms, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MB-0001-2014
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Figure 1

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images showing spatial structures in flow-chamber-grown 5-day-old biofilms formed by (A) Gfp-tagged (green fluorescent) , (B) Gfp-tagged , and (C) a mixture of Gfp-tagged and DsRed-tagged (red fluorescent) . Bars, 20 μm. Adapted from reference with permission from the American Society for Microbiology.

Citation: Tolker-Nielsen T. 2015. Biofilm Development, p 51-66. In Ghannoum M, Parsek M, Whiteley M, Mukherjee P (ed), Microbial Biofilms, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MB-0001-2014
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Figure 2

CLSM micrographs acquired in 5-day-old PAO1 biofilms grown on (A) glucose minimal medium and (B) citrate minimal medium. The central pictures show-top down fluorescence projections, and the flanking pictures show vertical sections. Bars, 20 μm. Adapted from reference with permission from Wiley-Blackwell publishing.

Citation: Tolker-Nielsen T. 2015. Biofilm Development, p 51-66. In Ghannoum M, Parsek M, Whiteley M, Mukherjee P (ed), Microbial Biofilms, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MB-0001-2014
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Figure 3

CLSM vertical sections acquired in a color-coded biofilm grown in a flow chamber on glucose minimal medium. The CLSM micrographs were acquired in a 4-day-old biofilm which was initiated with a 1:1 mixture of Yfp-tagged (yellow fluorescent) PAO1 wild type and Cfp-tagged (cyan fluorescent) mutants. Bars, 20 μm. Adapted from reference with permission from Wiley-Blackwell publishing.

Citation: Tolker-Nielsen T. 2015. Biofilm Development, p 51-66. In Ghannoum M, Parsek M, Whiteley M, Mukherjee P (ed), Microbial Biofilms, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MB-0001-2014
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