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Chapter 8 : Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave

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Abstract:

The appropriate packaging and transport of potential biological or chemical weapons may be the most critical component of the sampling process. This chapter provides an understanding of safe packaging and shipping of potentially infectious or hazardous materials. It gives an overview of the current (2006) guidelines and should not be viewed as the definitive regulations. While a general understanding of these fundamentals is essential, the changing nature of transportation regulations and the evolution of biosafety metrics mandate regular retraining of personnel and updating of information. The information in the chapter gives the knowledge to make good decisions in the field about how to safely package and transport materials for laboratory testing. In general, there are three choices for shipping: noncommercial conveyance (e.g., law enforcement, public health, or hazmat personnel), commercial ground transport, and commercial air transport. The chapter provides a checklist for shipping a package. Several companies sell certified shipping containers for the purpose of transporting biological material through the routes described in the chapter. When samples are being transported by the designated first responder or health officials by ground, they are exempt from Department of Transportation (DOT) and International Air Transportation Association (IATA) regulations. The important thing is that the risk of hazardous-substance release and sample compromise is minimized through appropriate packaging and shipping.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Figures

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Figure 1

Dangerous-goods form.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Figure 2

The three layers of necessary packaging.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Figure 3

Checklist for shipping a package. The technical name may be omitted from the package if it is being shipped under IATA Special Provision A140. Federal regulations (2) suggest that the technical name should not appear on the outer package.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Figure 4

Packing and information necessary to ship category A infectious substances at ambient temperatures.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Figure 5

Documentation required for shipping at ambient temperatures. 1, name and address of shipper (phone number recommended); 2, name and address of consignee (phone number recommended); 3, transport details (delete the box that does not apply); 4, shipment type (delete the box that does not apply); 5A, UN number; 5B, proper shipping name; 5C, class/subsidiary risk; 6A, packing group; 6B, quantity; 6C, type of packaging; 7, packing instruction; 8, 24-h emergency contact number; 9, name and title of signatory; 10, place and date; 11, shipper's signature. Note that alterations are acceptable only if signed (full signature required) by the shipper. Correction fluid must never be used to make alterations.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Checklist for documentation of a sample shipment.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Packing and information necessary to ship category A infectious substances with dry ice.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Documentation for shipping with dry ice. 1, name and address of shipper (phone number recommended); 2, name and address of consignee (phone number recommended); 3, name and number of person responsible for the class 6.2 shipment; 4, transport details (delete the box that does not apply); 5, shipment type (delete the box that does not apply); 6A and 6a, UN numbers; 6B and 6b, proper shipping names; 6C, technical name; 6D and 6d, class/subsidiary risk; 7A, packing group; 7B, type of packaging; 7C and 7c, quantity; 8A and 8a, packing instructions; 9, 24-h emergency contact number; 10, name and title of signatory; 11, place and date; 12, shipper's signature; 13, special provision (if used). Protect all documentation accompanying the package by enclosing it in a waterproof bag.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Image of Figure 9
Figure 9

Checklist for shipping with dry ice.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Image of Figure 10
Figure 10

Steps for shipping materials in a shipper.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Figure 11

UN specification mark.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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Image of Figure A1
Figure A1

Example of a triple-bagged package.

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817473.chap08
1. Government Printing Office. Code of Federal Regulations, 49CFR172.101. Hazardous material table. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
2. Government Printing Office. Code of Federal Regulations, 49CFR172.301(b). Removal of Technical Name from the outer package containing Category A, infectious substance. (Regulation pending.) Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
3. Government Printing Office. Code of Federal Regulations, 49CFR172.700. Training requirements for shippers of Hazardous Materials. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
4. Government Printing Office. Code of Federal Regulations, 49CFR173.196. Regulations for packages containing infectious substance shipped within the United States. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
5. Government Printing Office. Code of Federal Regulations, 49CFR173.199. Regulations for packages containing diagnostic specimens shipped within the United States. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
6. Government Printing Office. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
7. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., section 1.5. Training requirements. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
8. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., section 2.7. Dangerous goods in excepted quantities. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
9. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., section 2.8.1. Dangerous goods permitted in limited quantities. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
10. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., section 3.5.2, classification, division 3.8. Corrosives. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
11. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., section 3.5.2, classification, division 5.2. Organic peroxides. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
12. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., section 3.5.2, classification, division 6.1. Toxic substances. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
13. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., section 3.10. Classification of articles/substances with multiple hazards. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
14. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., section 5.0.2.13.5.3. Reused packagings must be disinfected or sterilized. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
15. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., section 7.1. Marking. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
16. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., special provision A140. Option to delete the technical name from the outer packages containing Category A, infectious substance. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
17. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., ICAO/IATA packing instruction 602. Regulations for the compliant shipment of Category A, infectious substances. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
18. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed., ICAO/IATA packing instruction 650. Regulations for the compliant shipment of Category B, infectious substances. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
19. International Air Transport Association. 2006. Dangerous Goods Regulations, 47th ed. International Air Transport Association, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
20. International Civil Aviation Organization. Part 1-4.1. Establishment of training programmes. International Civil Aviation Organization, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
21. International Civil Aviation Organization. Part 6-2.1.1a. The United Nations packaging symbol. International Civil Aviation Organization, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
22. International Civil Aviation Organization. Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air. International Civil Aviation Organization, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Hotlines

Citation: Cirino N, Cook D. 2008. Sample Packaging and Transport: Biosafety from Cradle to Grave, p 189-206. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch8

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