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Chapter 9 : Laboratory Resources

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Laboratory Resources, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter describes laboratories throughout the United States that are capable of analyzing environmental samples. It then explores the role of the laboratory through the entire environmental sampling process and suggests best practices for the presampling interaction, sampling event coordination, and postsampling communication with the analysis laboratory. Laboratories from several networks may be involved in testing samples for biological agents. The chapter discusses networks in the grated Consortium of Laboratory Networks (ICLN) that play a role in analyzing environmental samples. Analytical laboratories receive samples with two different levels of urgency: routine and nonroutine. Routine samples are typically delivered, analyzed, and reported on a prearranged schedule. Perhaps the most significant reason for keeping the laboratory informed while a sampling event is unfolding is to give it adequate lead time to prepare, ultimately expediting sample analysis and reporting. The White House-sponsored ICLN effort discussed in the chapter represents the first step in tying together the diverse laboratory networks for better communication and consistency of analysis methods. Even though the chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the laboratory resources in the United States and their roles in sampling operations, an entire book could easily be dedicated to the topic of laboratory analysis of biological-threat agents. The chapter provides a deeper understanding of the complexities involved in laboratory analysis of environmental samples, as well as the direct relationship between the quality of the sample and the quality of the results.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figures

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Figure 1

Stages of environmental sampling.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure 2

Structure of the ICLN.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure 3

Structure of the LRN. BT, biological threat.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure 4

Geographic distribution of LRN laboratories.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure 5

Laboratory analysis steps from sample delivery through the reporting of sample analysis results.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure 6

Chain-of-custody forms. (A) New York State Department of Health; (B) DoD.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure 7

Example of laboratory workflow for testing of an environmental sample for a biothreat agent. DFA, direct fluorescent-antibody assay.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure 8

Roles of the analytical laboratory in sampling operations.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure A1

PCR.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure A2

Illustration of an antibody.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure A3

Antibody sandwich assay.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure A4

Steps used in the ELISA.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure A5

Steps used in the lateral-flow immunoassay. (A) An HHA; (B) diagram of procedure (see appendix text for details).

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure A6

Steps used in the ECL assay.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure A7

Steps used in the TRF assay.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure A8

Microbiological culture for B. anthracis (A), Staphylococcus aureus (which produces enterotoxin B) (B), and Brucella melitensis (C).

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure A9

(A) Motility test; (B) urease test; (C) Gram stain (B. anthracis pictured).

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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Figure A10

Manual and automated biochemical identification systems. (A) API 20 strips; (B) Microlog from Biolog.

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817473.chap09
1. Byrne, K. M.,, I. R. Fruchey,, A. M. Bailey,, and P. A. Emanuel. 2003. Automated biological agent testing systems. Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 3:759768.
2. Carr, K.,, E. A. Henchal,, C. Wilhelmsen,, and B. Carr. 2004. Implementation of biosurety systems in a Department of Defense medical research laboratory. Biosecurity Bioterrorism Biodefense Strategy Pract. Sci. 2:716.
3. Chidister, L. B. 2006. Lab consortium focuses on optimizing preparedness, surveillance. NAHSS Outlook, 1st quarter. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ceah/ncahs/ nsu/outlook/issue9/outlook_feb06_icln.pdf.
4. Emanuel, P. A.,, I. R. Fruchey,, A. M. Bailey,, J. L. Dang,, K. Niyogi,, J. W. Roos,, D. Cullin,, and D. C. Emanuel. 2005. Automated screening for biological weapons in homeland defense. Biosecurity Bioterrorism 3:3950.
5. Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. Memorandum of Agreement for an Integrated Consortium of Laboratory Networks, 2005. http://www.epa.gov/sab/pdf/ signed_icln_memo_of_agreement_june-6-2005.pdf.
1. Saiki, R. K.,, S. Scharf,, F. Faloona,, K. B. Mullis,, G. T. Horn,, H. A. Erlich,, and N. Arnheim. 1985. Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science 230:13501354.

Tables

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Table 1

Laboratory networks

Citation: Roos J, Egan C. 2008. Laboratory Resources, p 207-241. In Emanuel P, Roos J, Niyogi K (ed), Sampling for Biological Agents in the Environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817473.ch9

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