1887

Chapter 27 : Comparing Genomes

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Comparing Genomes, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817480/9781555814724_Chap27-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817480/9781555814724_Chap27-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter provides information about how genomes change, what kinds of questions can be addressed by comparing genomes, and general approaches to making those comparisons. The raw material for evolution, or genome change, is mutation. It is useful to think about genome changes in terms of time scales. For the genomes of two closely related individuals to be different, the changes must have occurred very fast. At this time scale, the process of recombination is extremely important. In comparisons of animal genomes, scientists have found that even between two species that are not particularly closely related, such as mice and humans, rearrangement events can be traced by identifying segments of chromosomes in which the order of genes is the same in the two organisms. To illustrate how genome comparisons can be useful, several examples from studies of dogs are rounded up. The most obvious way to compare genomes would be to sequence the genomes in question and use computers to help you understand the differences. However, sequencing the genome of an organism such as the dog is an enormous undertaking requiring years to finish. For genome comparisons, several highly variable regions are characterized, and a DNA “profile” is generated. Loci that are highly variable among different individuals are the ones that are useful for DNA typing, while those that are more constant are more useful for comparing breeds or species. A locus used for DNA comparisons is often called a DNA marker.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. Comparing Genomes, p 272-282. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch27

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.42928037
Genetic Recombination
0.41807568
0.42928037
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 27.1
Figure 27.1

Structural similarities and differences in chromosomes 1 to 3 of primates. H, human; C, chimpanzee; G, gorilla; O, orangutan.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. Comparing Genomes, p 272-282. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 27.2
Figure 27.2

Variation in the numbers of tandem (head-to-tail) repeat sequences at many different locations within the genome provides a basis for genetic fingerprinting. To generate a fingerprint, laboratory technicians amplify many different loci using a specific set of primers for each one or they digest the sample DNA with restriction enzymes known to cut it at sites flanking the repeats.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. Comparing Genomes, p 272-282. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Untitled
Untitled

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. Comparing Genomes, p 272-282. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Untitled
Untitled

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. Comparing Genomes, p 272-282. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 27.3
Figure 27.3

Human mitochondrial DNA. The D-loop region around the origin of replication is the hypervariable region.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. Comparing Genomes, p 272-282. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 27.4
Figure 27.4

Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA follows the maternal line.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. Comparing Genomes, p 272-282. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817480.chap27
1. Cann, R. L.,, and A. C. Wilson. 2003. The recent African genesis of humans. Scientific American 289:5461.
2. King, M.-C. 1990. Genes of war. Discover 11(10):4652. The story of Mary-Claire King's work in Argentina.
3. National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/visible proofs/galleries/cases/index.html. The story of the identification of Michael Blassie, along with several other cases of forensic interest (including one related to the identification of the children of the Argentine victims), can be found on this website.
4. Wallace, D. C. 1997. Mitochondrial DNA in aging and disease. Scientific American 277:4047.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error