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Chapter 8 : From Genes to Proteins

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From Genes to Proteins, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

There are many types of proteins, and each of these types performs an important kind of job in your body. For example, structural proteins form the “bricks and mortar” of your tissues. Two of them, actin and myosin, enable your muscles to contract. Another structural protein, keratin, is the basic component of hair. Carrier proteins transport important nutrients, hormones, and other critical substances around your body. One of these proteins is hemoglobin, which carries oxygen through your blood to your tissues. Enzymes digest your food, synthesize fats so your body can store energy, and carry out the work of making new cells. They make molecules and perform activities necessary for life. Scientists immediately saw the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) for controlling the expression of genes, just as they had recognized the potential of antisense regulation. RNAi has generally proven very fruitful in laboratory experiments, allowing scientists to mimic the effects of gene mutations by shutting off the expression of specific genes. Scientists can introduce the 21- to 23-base-pair dsRNA molecules into cells directly, or they can introduce an artificial DNA gene with a promoter and a self-complementary coding sequence, like the natural miRNAs. Although there were no RNAi drugs on the market at the time of writing this chapter, potential uses of RNAi to fight AIDS, certain inherited diseases, and cancer are being explored.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. From Genes to Proteins, p 176-181. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch8

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Small Interfering RNA
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How RNAi works. A dsRNA molecule is clipped into short siRNAs by the Dicer enzyme. The strands of the siRNAs are separated by a protein complex that includes an RNA cleaving molecule, and the protein-RNA complex scans cellular mRNA. When an mRNA molecule with a complementary sequence is found, the small RNA hybridizes to it, triggering cleavage of the target mRNA.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. From Genes to Proteins, p 176-181. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch8
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Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. From Genes to Proteins, p 176-181. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch8
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Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. From Genes to Proteins, p 176-181. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Students, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817480_ch8

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