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Chapter 13 : Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth

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Abstract:

This chapter introduces concepts related to energetics, stoichiometry, and kinetics of microbial growth. It consists of two parts: the first part focuses on energetics and stoichiometry, and the second part focuses on kinetics of microbial growth. The section on energetics and stoichiometry includes some basic concepts such as computation of oxidation states and half-reactions that are critical to formulate a stoichiometric equation. The section on kinetics presents equations governing cell growth, focusing on batch cultures and chemostats. All analyses and statements in this chapter assume the existence of a single cell (or spore that could transform into a vegetative state) that contains the enzymatic capacity and information necessary to put the building blocks, electrons, and energy into a copy of itself. In a cell synthesis reaction, the Gibbs standard free energy at pH 7, ΔG , obtained from the energy-yielding reaction and electrons (f ) from the electron donor are used to reduce carbon, nitrogen, and other cell constituents into an oxidation state of the materials found in the cell and to assemble these constituents into cellular macromolecules.

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Growth Kinetics
0.5927651
Inorganic Compounds
0.45808563
Carbon Sources
0.45357162
Nitrogen Sources
0.41369838
Bacterial Growth
0.40244704
0.5927651
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Simplified depiction of the three essential components needed to support the growth of all microorganisms.

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

The overall process of microbial growth in terms of electron donor, electron acceptor, carbon and nitrogen sources, and energy for synthesis reaction.

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Oxidation state of selected elements (in boldface) in various compounds of biological interest.

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 4a
FIGURE 4a

Trends in the computed value of as a function of selected electron acceptors and electron donors for NH as the nitrogen sources and CHON as the cell formula. (Part 1) Organic donors (heterotrophy); (Part 2) Inorganic donors (autotrophy).

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 4b
FIGURE 4b

Trends in the computed value of as a function of selected electron acceptors and electron donors for NH as the nitrogen sources and CHON as the cell formula. (Part 1) Organic donors (heterotrophy); (Part 2) Inorganic donors (autotrophy).

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Specific growth rate and half velocity constant, the basis for Monod kinetics.

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Idealized normal growth cycle for a bacterial population in a batch culture system.

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Idealized diauxic growth of a bacterial population (biomass) in a batch culture system with two usable substrates (glucose and lactose).

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Generalized effects of changes in the dilution rate on culture variables in a chemostat system for continuous cultivation, where the dilution rate approaches μ at washout.

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817497.chap13
1. Bailey, J. E.,, and D. F. Ollis. 1986. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, 2nd ed. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, NY.
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3. Criddle, C. S.,, L. M. Alvarez,, and P. L. McCarty,. 1991. Microbial processes in porous media, p. 639691. In J. Bear, and M. Y. Corapcioglu (ed.), Transport Processes in Porous Media. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
4. Dolfing, J.,, and J. M. Tiedje. 1987. Growth yield increase linked to ATP production and growth in an anerobic bacterium, strain DCB-1. Arch. Microbiol. 153:264266.
5. Drew, S. W., 1981. Liquid culture, p. 151178. In P. Gerhardt,, R. G. E. Murray,, R. N. Costilow,, E. W. Nester,, W. A. Wood,, N. R. Krieg,, and G. B. Phillips (ed.), Manual of Methods for General Bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
6. Herbert, D., 1976. Stoichiometric aspects of microbial growth, p. 130. In A. C. R. Dean,, D. C. Ellwood,, C. G. T. Evans,, and J. Melling (ed.), Continuous Culture 6: Applications and New Fields. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, England.
7. Hoeft, S. E.,, T. R. Kulp,, J. F. Stolz,, J. T. Hollibaugh,, and R. S. Oremland. 2004. Dissimilatory arsenate reduction with sulfide as electron donor: experiments with Mono lake water and isolation of strain MLMS-1, a chemoautotrophic arsenate respirer. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:27412747.
8. Holliger, C.,, D. Hahn,, H. Harmsen,, W. Ludwig,, W. Schumacher,, B. Tindall,, F. Vazquez,, N. Weiss,, and A. J. B. Zehnder. 1998. Dehalobacter restrictus gen. nov. and sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium that reductively dechlorinates tetra- and trichloroethene in an anaerobic respiration. Arch. Microbiol. 169:313321.
9. Luedeking, R. (ed.). 1976>. Fermentation Process Kinetics, vol. 1. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY.
10. Madigan, M. T.,, J. M. Martinko,, and J. Parker. 2002. Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 10th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
11. Maymó-Gatell, X.,, Y. Chien,, J. M. Gossett,, and S. H. Zinder. 1997. Isolation of a bacterium that reductively dechlorinates tetrachloroethene to ethene. Science 276:15681571.
12. Maymó-Gatell, X.,, I. Nijenhuis,, and S. H. Zinder. 2001. Reductive dechlorination of cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride by “Dehalococcoides ethenogenes.” Environ. Sci. Technol. 35:516521.
13. McCarty, P. L., 1971. Energetics and bacterial growth. In S. D. Faust, and J. V. Hunter (ed.), Organic Compounds in Aquatic Environments. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
14. McCarty, P. L. 1997. Microbiology: breathing with chlorinated solvents. Science 276:15211522.
15. Monod, J. 1949. The growth of bacterial cultures. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 3:371394.
16. Monod, J. 1950. La technique de culture continue: theorie et applications. Ann. Inst. Pasteur (Paris) 79:390410.
17. Neidhardt, F. C.,, R. Curtiss III,, J. L. Ingraham,, E. C. C. Lin,, K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik,, W. S. Reznikoff,, M. Riley,, M. A. Schaechter,, and E. H. Umbarger (ed.). 1996. Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC.>
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19. Pirt, J. S. 1975. Principles of Microbe and Cell Cultivation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Reduction half-reactions normalize to 1 e for selected organic compounds and the associated values of δ and theoretical values of

Computed assuming NH as nitrogen source, CHON as the cell formula, and ε = 0.6. The values of f are computed assuming the following end points for the acceptors: O to HO, Fe to Fe, NO to N, MnO to Mn, SO - to HS, and CO to CH. These f values are provided to save time in computation and do not necessarily imply the existence of an organism that can use the corresponding electron donor-acceptor pair. Data from references , and .

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Reduction half-reactions normalized to 1 e eq for selected inorganic compounds and the associated values of δ and theoretical values of

Computed assuming NH as nitrogen source, CHON as cell formula, and ε = 0.6. Note that the values of f are provided to save time in computation. They do not necessarily imply the existence of an organism that can use the corresponding electron acceptor-acceptor pair. Data from references , and .

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Free energies of formation, , for selected substances

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Half-reactions representing cell synthesis using NH , NO , NO , or N as N source

Citation: Hashsham S, Baushke S. 2007. Energetics, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Microbial Growth, p 286-308. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch13

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