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Chapter 15 : Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics

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Abstract:

In performing phenotypic characterization tests, the organisms used for the inoculation of test media should be from fresh transfers and in good physiological condition. The methods described in this chapter are based primarily on methods developed for the characterization and identification of organisms which have usually been isolated on nutrient-rich media. While zoologists may be content to classify all insects or all vertebrates, prokaryote systematics generally deals with all prokaryotes and in an evolutionary context attempts to extend this study back to the origin of life itself. To test for acetamide hydrolysis, streak the surface of an acetamide agar slant with a sample from a dilute suspension. Incubate for up to 7 days. Care should be taken to ensure that the basal medium to which the carbohydrates are added does not contain fermentable or oxidizable sugars, and control media without any added carbohydrates should always be included during testing of cultures. Methanogenic members of the also fluoresce under UV light. Some facultative anaerobes, such as and , grow aerobically by respiration with oxygen and grow anaerobically by fermentation.

Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Ecology
0.8464806
Bacterial Classification
0.44626355
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
0.41234615
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
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0.8464806
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FIGURE 1

Diagram illustrating the various forms, elevations, and margins of bacterial colonies. (Adapted by permission of the McGraw–Hill Book Co. from reference )

Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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FIGURE 2

Diagram of apparatus for filling eight microtiter plate wells simultaneously. (A) Stainless steel tubing; (B) 18- gauge hypodermic needles brazed to tubing; (C) microtiter plate with wells; (D) Luer-Lok connector brazed to end of tubing; (E) filling hose attached to Cornwall syringe; (F) barrel and plunger of Cornwall syringe. By depressing the plunger, the eight wells can be filled simultaneously with sterile medium.

Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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FIGURE 3

Pankhurst tube. (A) Larger test tube (1.9 by 15.7 cm) containing culture; (B) connecting tube (0.8 by 1.8 cm) with nonabsorbent cotton as gas filter; (C) smaller test tube (1.9 by 6.0 cm) with absorbent cotton to hold alkaline pyrogallol.

Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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FIGURE 4

Diagram showing how the end of a hypodermic needle can be bent with a needle-nose pliers so that the needle will not punch a hole in a serum bottle stopper or in the rubber septum of a gas chromatograph injector port.

Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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Citation: Tindall B, Sikorski J, Smibert R, Krieg N. 2007. Phenotypic Characterization and the Principles of Comparative Systematics, p 330-393. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch15
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References

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