1887

Chapter 24 : Cellulases, Hemicellulases, and Pectinases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Cellulases, Hemicellulases, and Pectinases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817497/9781555812232_Chap24-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817497/9781555812232_Chap24-2.gif

Abstract:

The study of cellulases is important from the standpoint of microbial conversion of biomass to feeds and chemical feed stock. The complex structure of hemicelluloses has dictated a correspondingly diverse array of hemicellulases. The concentration (or actually dilution) of enzyme preparation required to effect this level of depolymerization is converted, through a somewhat indirect procedure, to the cellulase activity in filter paper units (FPU) per milliliter. Rather than being an exact representation of the saccharification process that occurs in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), diafiltration saccharification assay (DSA) data were useful for comparison with SSF data in efforts to identify the influences of factors other than product inhibition on the performance of cellulases in SSF. Cellulases may also be detected in slab gels using either Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, as reported for enzymes from . When preparing enzyme-treated substrates, care must be taken to employ phenolic acid esterase-free cellulases. Hemicellulose-depolymerizing enzymes are divided into three classes; the endoacting, exoacting, and oligomer-hydrolyzing. The process of detecting and verifying exoglucanases (cellobiohydrolases [CBHs] in context of the fungal cellulose systems) has long been controversial. If purified proteins are available, careful comparisons of reducing-sugar yields and fluidity values from carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrolysis as a function of enzyme concentration can be used to judge whether an enzyme is more endoglucanase-like or CBH-like. Recent reviews by Kashyap and Naidu and Panda outline the pectinase enzymes in detail. Ruthenium red staining in plates and zymograms has also been used for assay of pectinase enzymes.

Citation: Himmel M, Baker J, Adney W, Decker S. 2007. Cellulases, Hemicellulases, and Pectinases, p 596-610. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch24

Key Concept Ranking

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
0.41001654
0.41001654
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Action of the major cellulase enzymes on cellulose. Endoglucanases cleave random internal β-1→4 bonds. The major exoglucanases cleave cellobiose units from the reducing chain ends in a processive manner, whereas minor exoglucanases may cleave glucose units from the nonreducing end of the chain (not shown). β-Glucosidases cleave cellobiose to two glucose units.

Citation: Himmel M, Baker J, Adney W, Decker S. 2007. Cellulases, Hemicellulases, and Pectinases, p 596-610. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Action of major enzymes involved in the depolymerization of generic xylan (A) and glucomannan (B) chains. Additional debranching enzymes are required for the numerous variants found in the different hemicelluloses.

Citation: Himmel M, Baker J, Adney W, Decker S. 2007. Cellulases, Hemicellulases, and Pectinases, p 596-610. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

More specific action of debranching enzymes involved in the deconstruction of arabinoxylan. The structure is a generalized diagram of arabinoglucuronoxylan. Enzyme activities: 1, endoxylanase; 2, acetyl xylan esterase; 3, α-L-arabinofuranosidase; 4, α-D-glucuronidase; 5, ferulic acid esterase; 6, acetyl esterase; and 7, β-xylosidase.

Citation: Himmel M, Baker J, Adney W, Decker S. 2007. Cellulases, Hemicellulases, and Pectinases, p 596-610. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

DSA progress curve of commercial cellulase preparation (Spezyme from Genencor International) at a loading of 20 FPU/g of cellulose acting on Sigmacell 20 at 38°C. After the actual experimental measurements, empirical fits to the data were done. The expression “time-to-target kinetics” is considered more descriptive of the approach than is the classical “integrated-rate kinetics.”

Citation: Himmel M, Baker J, Adney W, Decker S. 2007. Cellulases, Hemicellulases, and Pectinases, p 596-610. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

AZCL-polysaccharide hydrolysis in a petri plate (top) and a microtiter plate. The dark particulates are the AZCL-β-glucan (top) and AZCL-galactan (bottom). Soluble blue dye is released upon hydrolysis.

Citation: Himmel M, Baker J, Adney W, Decker S. 2007. Cellulases, Hemicellulases, and Pectinases, p 596-610. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817497.chap24
1. Ademark, P.,, R. P. de Vries,, P. Hagglund,, H. Stalbrand,, and J. Visser. 2001. Cloning and characterization of Aspergillus niger genes encoding an alpha-galactosidase and a beta-mannosidase involved in galactomannan degradation. Eur. J. Biochem. 268: 2982 2990.
2. Adney, W. S.,, J. O. Baker,, T. B. Vinzant,, S. R. Thomas,, and M. E. Himmel. 1995. Kinetic comparison of beta- D-glucosidases of industrial importance. Abstr. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc. 209: 119 BTEC.
3. Adney, W. S.,, C. I. Ehrman,, J. O. Baker,, S. R. Thomas,, and M. E. Himmel,. 1994. Cellulase assays—methods from empirical mathematical-models, p. 218 235. In J. N. Saddler, and M. H. Penner (ed.), Enzymatic Conversion of Biomass for Fuels Production, vol. 566. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C..
4. Adney, W. S.,, A. Mohagheghi,, S. R. Thomas,, and M. E. Himmel,. 1995. Comparison of protein contents of cellulase preparations in a worldwide round-robin assay, p. 256 271. In M. E. Himmel,, J. O. Baker,, and R. P. Overend (ed.), Enzymatic Degradation of Insoluble Carbohydrates, vol. 618. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C..
5. Agblevor, F. A.,, A. Murden,, and B. R. Hames. 2004. Improved method of analysis of biomass sugars using highperformance liquid chromatography. Biotechnol. Lett. 26: 1207 1210.
6. Aho, S. 1991. Structural and functional analysis of Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase I expressed in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 291: 45 49.
7. Aho, S.,, V. Olkkonen,, T. Jalava,, M. Paloheimo,, R. Buhler,, M. Niku-Paavola,, D. Bamford,, and M. Korhola. 1991. Monoclonal antibodies against core and cellulosebinding domains of Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases I and II and endoglucanase I. Eur. J. Biochem. 200: 643 649.
8. Antov, M. G.,, D. M. Pericin,, and G. R. Dimic. 2001. Cultivation of Polyporus squamosus for pectinase production in aqueous two-phase system containing sugar beet extraction waste. J. Biotechnol. 91: 83 87.
9. Bailey, M. J.,, P. Biely,, and K. Poutanen. 1992. Interlaboratory testing of methods for assay of xylanase activity. J. Biotechnol. 23: 257 270.
10. Bailey, M. J.,, and K. Poutanen. 1989. Production of xylanolytic enzymes by strains of Aspergillus. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30: 5 10.
11. Baker, J. O.,, T. B. Vinzant,, C. I. Ehrman,, W. S. Adney,, and M. E. Himmel. 1997. Use of a new membrane-reactor saccharification assay to evaluate the performance of cellulases under simulated SSF conditions—effect on enzyme quality of growing Trichoderma reesei in the presence of targeted lignocellulosic substrate. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 63- 65: 585 595.
12. Bartley, T. D.,, K. Murphy-Holland,, and D. E. Eveleigh. 1984. A method for the detection and differentiation of cellulase components in polyacrylamide gels. Anal. Biochem. 140: 157 161.
13. Beldman, G.,, M. Searle-Van Leeuwen,, F. Rombouts,, and F. Voragen. 1985. The cellulase of Trichoderma viride; purification, characterization and comparison of all detectable endoglucanases, exoglucanases and beta-glucosidases. Eur. J. Biochem. 146: 301 308.
14. Berens, S.,, H. Kaspari,, and J. H. Klemme. 1996. Purification and characterization of two different xylanases from the thermophilic actinomycete Microtetraspora flexuosa SIIX. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 69: 235 241.
15. Bhattacharya, S.,, and N. K. Rastogi. 1998. Rheological properties of enzyme-treated mango pulp. J. Food Eng. 36: 249 262.
16. Biely, P.,, D. Mislovicova,, and R. Toman. 1988. Remazol brilliant blue xylan—a soluble chromogenic substrate for xylanases. Methods Enzymol. 160: 536 541.
17. Biely, P.,, D. Mislovicova,, and R. Toman. 1985. Soluble chromogenic substrates for the assay of endo-1,4-betaxylanases and endo-1,4-beta-glucanases. Anal. Biochem. 144: 142 146.
18. Blum, D. L.,, X. L. Li,, H. Chen,, and L. G. Ljungdahl. 1999. Characterization of an acetyl xylan esterase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 3990 3995.
19. Bolam, D. N.,, N. Hughes,, R. Virden,, J. H. Lakey,, G. P. Hazlewood,, B. Henrissat,, K. L. Braithwaite,, and H. J. Gilbert. 1996. Mannanase A from Pseudomonas fluorescens ssp. cellulosa is a retaining glycosyl hydrolase in which E212 and E320 are the putative catalytic residues. Biochemistry 35: 16195 16204.
20. Borneman, W. S.,, L. G. Ljungdahl,, R. D. Hartley,, and D. E. Akin. 1991. Isolation and characterization of pcoumaroyl esterase from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix strain MC-2. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 2337 2344.
21. Bourgault, R.,, and J. D. Bewley. 2002. Gel diffusion assays for endo-beta-mannanase and pectin methylesterase can underestimate enzyme activity due to proteolytic degradation: a remedy. Anal. Biochem. 300: 87 93.
22. Boussaid, A.,, J. Robinson,, Y. J. Cai,, D. J. Gregg,, and J. R. Saddler. 1999. Fermentability of the hemicellulosederived sugars from steam-exploded softwood (Douglas fir). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 64: 284 289.
23. Braithwaite, K. L.,, G. W. Black,, G. P. Hazlewood,, B. R. Ali,, and H. J. Gilbert. 1995. A non-modular endo-beta- 1,4-mannanase from Pseudomonas fluorescens subspecies cellulosa. Biochem. J. 305(Pt. 3): 1005 1010.
24. Bray, M. R.,, and A. J. Clarke. 1992. Action pattern of xylo-oligosaccharide hydrolysis by Schizophyllum commune xylanase A. Eur. J. Biochem. 204: 191 196.
25. Bronnenmeier, K.,, A. Kern,, W. Liebl,, and W. L. Staudenbauer. 1995. Purification of Thermotoga maritima enzymes for the degradation of cellulosic materials. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 1399 1407.
26. Brummell, D. A.,, C. Catala,, C. C. Lashbrook,, and A. B. Bennett. 1997. A membrane-anchored E-type endo-1,4- beta-glucanase is localized on golgi and plasma membranes of higher plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 4794 4799.
27. Carder, J. H. 1986. Detection and quantitation of cellulase by congo red staining of substrates in a cup-plate diffusion assay. Anal. Biochem. 153: 75 79.
28. Cardoso, S. M.,, A. M. Silva,, and M. A. Coimbra. 2002. Structural characterisation of the olive pomace pectic polysaccharide arabinan side chains. Carbohydr. Res. 337: 917 924.
29. Castanares, A.,, A. J. Hay,, A. H. Gordon,, S. I. McCrae,, and T. M. Wood. 1995. D-xylan-degrading enzyme system from the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium: isolation and partial characterization of an alpha-(4-O-methyl)-Dglucuronidase. J. Biotechnol. 43: 183 194.
30. Castanares, A.,, and T. M. Wood. 1992. Purification and characterization of a feruloyl/p-coumaroyl esterase from solid-state cultures of the aerobic fungus Penicillium pinophilum. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 20: 275S.
31. Castilho, L. R.,, T. L. M. Alves,, and R. A. Medronho. 1999. Recovery of pectolytic enzymes produced by solid state culture of Aspergillus niger. Process Biochem. 34: 181 186.
32. Chaubey, M.,, and V. P. Kapoor. 2001. Structure of a galactomannan from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. Carbohydr. Res. 332: 439 444.
33. Chee, K. K. 1990. Kinetic study of random chain scission by viscometry. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 41: 985 994.
34. Chhabra, S.,, K. N. Parker,, D. Lam,, W. Callen,, M. A. Snead,, E. J. Mathur,, J. M. Short,, and R. M. Kelly. 2001. Beta-mannanases from Thermotoga species. Methods Enzymol. 330: 224 238.
35. Choi, I. D.,, H. Y. Kim,, and Y. J. Choi. 2000. Gene cloning and characterization of alpha-glucuronidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus no. 236. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 64: 2530 2537.
36. Christakopoulos, P.,, W. Nerinckx,, D. Kekos,, B. Macris,, and M. Claeyssens. 1997. The alkaline xylanase III from Fusarium oxysporum F3 belongs to family F/10. Carbohydr. Res. 302: 191 195.
37. Christov, L. P.,, and B. A. Prior. 1993. Esterases of xylandegrading microorganisms: production, properties, and significance. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 15: 460 475.
38. Claeyssens, M.,, and G. Aerts. 1992. Characterization of cellulolytic activities in commercial Trichoderma reesei preparations—an approach using small, chromogenic substrates. Bioresour. Technol. 39: 143 146.
39. Claeyssens, M.,, H. Van Tilbeurgh,, P. Tomme,, T. M. Wood,, and S. I. McRae. 1989. Fungal cellulase systems. Comparison of the specificities of the cellobiohydrolases isolated from Penicillium pinophilum and Trichoderma reesei. Biochem. J. 261: 819 825.
40. Debeire, P.,, B. Priem,, G. Strecker,, and M. Vignon. 1990. Purification and properties of an endo-1,4-xylanase excreted by a hydrolytic thermophilic anaerobe, Clostridium thermolacticum. A proposal for its action mechanism on larchwood 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan. Eur. J. Biochem. 187: 573 580.
41. Decker, S. R.,, W. S. Adney,, E. Jennings,, T. B. Vinzant,, and M. E. Himmel. 2003. Automated filter paper assay for determination of cellulase activity. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 105- 108: 689 703.
42. Degrassi, G.,, A. Vindigni,, and V. Venturi. 2003. A thermostable alpha-arabinofuranosidase from xylanolytic Bacillus pumilus: purification and characterisation. J. Biotechnol. 101: 69 79.
43. Demeester, J.,, M. Bracke,, and A. Lauwers. 1979. Absolute viscometric method for the determination of endocellulase (Cx) activities based upon light-scattering interpretations of gel chromatographic fractionation data. Adv. Chem. Ser. 181: 91 125.
44. Deshpande, M. V.,, K.-E. Eriksson,, and L. G. Pettersson. 1984. An assay for selective determination of exo-1,4-β- glucanases in a mixture of cellulolytic enzymes. Anal. Biochem. 138: 481 487.
45. de Vries, R. P.,, H. C. Kester,, C. H. Poulsen,, J. A. Benen,, and J. Visser. 2000. Synergy between enzymes from Aspergillus involved in the degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Carbohydr. Res. 327: 401 410.
46. de Vries, R. P.,, C. H. Poulsen,, S. Madrid,, and J. Visser. 1998. aguA, the gene encoding an extracellular alphaglucuronidase from Aspergillus tubingensis, is specifically induced on xylose and not on glucuronic acid. J. Bacteriol. 180: 243 249.
47. de Vries, R. P.,, and J. Visser. 2001. Aspergillus enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65: 497 522.
48. Downie, B.,, H. W. M. Hilhorst,, and J. D. Bewley. 1994. New assay for quantifying endo-beta-D-mannanase activity using congo red-dye. Phytochemistry 36: 829 835.
49. Dupont, C.,, N. Daigneault,, F. Shareck,, R. Morosoli,, and D. Kluepfel. 1996. Purification and characterization of an acetyl xylan esterase produced by Streptomyces lividans. Biochem. J. 319(Pt. 3): 881 886.
50. Fanta, N.,, A. Quaas,, P. Zulueta,, and L. M. Perez. 1992. Release of reducing sugars from citrus seedlings, leaves and fruits. Effect of treatment with pectinase and cellulase from Alternaria and Trichoderma. Phytochemistry 31: 3359 3364.
51. Fransen, C. T.,, S. R. Haseley,, M. M. Huisman,, H. A. Schols,, A. G. Voragen,, J. P. Kamerling,, and J. F. Vliegenthart. 2000. Studies on the structure of a lithiumtreated soybean pectin: characteristics of the fragments and determination of the carbohydrate substituents of galacturonic acid. Carbohydr. Res. 328: 539 547.
52. Fulop, L.,, and T. Ponyi. 1997. Rapid screening for endobeta- 1,4-glucanase and endo-beta-1,4-mannanase activities and specific measurement using soluble dye-labelled substrates. J. Microbiol. Methods 29: 15 21.
53. Gainvors, A.,, N. Nedjaoum,, S. Gognies,, M. Muzart,, M. Nedjma,, and A. Belarbi. 2000. Purification and characterization of acidic endo-polygalacturonase encoded by the PGL1-1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 183: 131 135.
54. Ganter, J. L.,, J. C. Sabbi,, and W. F. Reed. 2001. Realtime monitoring of enzymatic hydrolysis of galactomannans. Biopolymers 59: 226 242.
55. Ghangas, G. S.,, Y. J. Hu,, and D. B. Wilson. 1989. Cloning of a Thermomonospora fusca xylanase gene and its expression in Escherichia coli and Streptomyces lividans. J. Bacteriol. 171: 2963 2969.
56. Ghose, T. K. 1987. Measurement of cellulase activities. Pure Appl. Chem. 59: 257 268.
57. Ghose, T. K.,, A. N. Pathak,, and V. S. Bisaria,. 1975. Kinetic and dynamic studies of Trichoderma viride cellulase production, p. 111. In M. Bailey,, T.-M. Enari,, and M. Linko (ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose. VTT, Aulanko, Finland.
58. Ghose, T. K.,, and V. S. Bisaria. 1987. Measurement of hemicellulase activities. 1. Xylanases. Pure Appl. Chem. 59: 1739 1751.
59. Gilkes, N. R.,, E. Kwan,, D. G. Kilburn,, R. C. Miller,, and R. A. J. Warren. 1997. Attack of carboxymethylcellulose at opposite ends by two cellobiohydrolases from Cellulomonas fimi. J. Biotechnol. 57: 83 90.
60. Gomes, J.,, I. I. Gomes,, K. Terler,, N. Gubala,, G. Ditzelmuller,, and W. Steiner. 2000. Optimisation of culture medium and conditions for alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase production by the extreme thermophilic eubacterium Rhodothermus marinus. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 27: 414 422.
61. Green, F., III, C. A. Clausen, and T. L. Highley. 1989. Adaptation of the Nelson-Somogyi reducing-sugar assay to a microassay using microtiter plates. Anal. Biochem. 182: 197 199.
62. Grohmann, K.,, R. Torget,, and M. E. Himmel. 1985. Optimization of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 15: 59 80.
63. Gustafsson, J.,, L. Ciovica,, and J. Peltonen. 2003. The ultrastructure of spruce kraft pulps studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Polymer 44: 661 670.
64. Hadj-Taieb, N.,, M. Ayadi,, S. Trigui,, F. Bouabdallah,, and A. Gargouri. 2002. Hyperproduction of pectinase activities by a fully constitutive mutant (CT1) of Penicillium occitanis. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 30: 662 666.
65. Håkansson, U.,, L. Fägerstam,, G. Pettersson,, and L. Andersson. 1978. Purification and characterization of a low molecular weight 1,4-beta-glucan glucanohydrolase from the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma viride QM 9414. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 524: 385 392.
66. Helbert, W.,, J. Sugiyama,, M. Ishihara,, and S. Yamanaka. 1997. Characterization of native crystalline cellulose in the cell walls of Oomycota. J. Biotechnol. 57: 29 37.
67. Hoshino, E.,, M. Shiroishi,, Y. Amano,, M. Nomura,, and T. Kanda. 1997. Synergistic actions of exo-type cellulases in the hydrolysis of cellulose with different crystallinities. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 84: 300 306.
68. Hrmova, M.,, and G. B. Fincher. 2001. Structure-function relationships of beta-D-glucan endo- and exohydrolases from higher plants. Plant Mol. Biol. 47: 73 91.
69. Hu, G.,, and F. H. Rijkenberg. 1998. Subcellular localization of beta-1,3-glucanase in Puccinia recondita f.sp. triticiinfected wheat leaves. Planta 204: 324 334.
70. Irwin, D. C.,, M. Spezio,, L. P. Walker,, and D. B. Wilson. 1993. Activity studies of 8 purified cellulases—specificity, synergism, and binding domain effects. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 42: 1002 1013.
71. Jeffries, T. W. 1996. Biochemistry and genetics of microbial xylanases. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 7: 337 342.
72. Johnson, E. A.,, M. Sakajoh,, G. Halliwell,, A. Madia,, and A. L. Demain. 1982. Saccharification of complex cellulosic substrates by the cellulase system from Clostridium thermocellum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 1125 1132.
73. Johnston, D. B.,, S. P. Shoemaker,, G. M. Smith,, and J. R. Whitaker. 1998. Kinetic measurements of cellulase activity on insoluble substrates using disodium 2,2′ bicinchoninate. J. Food Biochem. 22: 301 319.
74. Joos, P.,, W. Sierens,, and R. Ruyssen. 1969. The determination of cellulase activity by viscometry. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 21: 848 853.
75. Kapoor, M.,, Q. K. Beg,, B. Bhushan,, K. S. Dadhich,, and G. S. Hoondal. 2000. Production and partial purification and characterization of a thermo-alkali stable polygalacturonase from Bacillus sp. MG-cp-2. Process Biochem. 36: 467 473.
76. Karlsson, J.,, M. Siika-aho,, M. Tenkanen,, and F. Tjerneld. 2002. Enzymatic properties of the low molecular mass endoglucanases Cel12A (EG III) and Cel45A (EG V) of Trichoderma reesei. J. Biotechnol. 99: 63 78.
77. Kashyap, D. R.,, P. K. Vohra,, S. Chopra,, and R. Tewari. 2001. Applications of pectinases in the commercial sector: a review. Bioresour. Technol. 77: 215 227.
78. Keitel, T.,, K. K. Thomsen,, and U. Heinemann. 1993. Crystallization of barley (1-3,1-4)-beta-glucanase, isoenzyme II. J. Mol. Biol. 232: 1003 1004.
79. Khandke, K. M.,, P. J. Vithayathil,, and S. K. Murthy. 1989. Purification and characterization of an alpha-Dglucuronidase from a thermophilic fungus, Thermoascus aurantiacus. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 274: 511 517.
80. Kolbe, J.,, and C. P. Kubicek. 1990. Quantification and identification of the main components of the Trichoderma cellulase complex with monoclonal antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 34: 26 30.
81. Kong, F.,, C. R. Engler,, and E. J. Soltes. 1992. Effects of cell-wall acetate, xylan backbone, and lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis of aspen wood. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 34/ 35: 23 35.
82. Konstantinidis, A. K.,, I. Marsden,, and M. L. Sinnott. 1993. Hydrolyses of alpha- and beta-cellobiosyl fluorides by cellobiohydrolases of Trichoderma reesei. Biochem. J. 291(Pt. 3): 883 888.
83. Kotake, T.,, N. Nakagawa,, K. Takeda,, and N. Sakurai. 1997. Purification and characterization of wall-bound exo- 1,3-beta-D-glucanase from barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings. Plant Cell Physiol. 38: 194 200.
84. La Grange, D. C.,, I. S. Pretorius,, M. Claeyssens,, and W. H. van Zyl. 2001. Degradation of xylan to D-xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae coexpressing the Aspergillus niger beta-xylosidase ( xlnD) and the Trichoderma reesei xylanase II ( xyn2) genes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 5512 5519.
85. Lee, I.,, B. R. Evans,, and J. Woodward. 2000. The mechanism of cellulase action on cotton fibers: evidence from atomic force microscopy. Ultramicroscopy 82: 213 221.
86. Lee, R. C.,, R. A. Burton,, M. Hrmova,, and G. B. Fincher. 2001. Barley arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolases: purification, characterization and determination of primary structures from cDNA clones. Biochem. J. 356: 181 189.
87. Lemos, M. A.,, J. A. Teixeira,, M. R. M. Domingues,, M. Mota,, and F. M. Gama. 2003. The enhancement of the cellulolytic activity of cellobiohydrolase I and endoglucanase by the addition of cellulose binding domains derived from Trichoderma reesei. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 32: 35 40.
88. Levy, I.,, and O. Shoseyov. 2002. Cellulose-binding domains: biotechnological applications. Biotechnol. Adv. 20: 191 213.
89. Li, H.,, M. Rief,, F. Oesterhelt,, H. E. Gaub,, X. Zhang,, and J. Shen. 1999. Single-molecule force spectroscopy on polysaccharides by AFM-nanomechanical fingerprint of alpha-(1,4)-linked polysaccharides. Chem. Phys. Lett. 305: 197 201.
90. Limam, F.,, S. E. Chaabouni,, R. Ghrir,, and N. Marzouki. 1995. Two cellobiohydrolases of Penicillium occitanis mutant Pol 6: purification and properties. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 17: 340 346.
91. Lin, J.,, L. M. Ndlovu,, S. Singh,, and B. Pillay. 1999. Purification and biochemical characteristics of beta-Dxylanase from a thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus- SSBP. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 30: 73 79.
92. Lin, L. L.,, and J. A. Thomson. 1991. An analysis of the extracellular xylanases and cellulases of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 68: 197 203.
93. Linder, M.,, and T. T. Teeri. 1997. The roles and function of cellulose-binding domains. J. Biotechnol. 57: 15 28.
94. Mandels, M.,, G. L. Miller,, and R. W. Slater. 1961. Separation of fungal carbohydrases by starch block zone electrophoresis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 93: 115 121.
95. Mandels, M.,, R. Andreotti,, and C. Roche. 1976. Measurement of saccharifying cellulase. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 6: 21 33.
96. Mandels, M.,, D. Sternberg,, and R. E. Andreotti,. 1975. Growth and cellulase production by Trichoderma, p. 81. In M. Bailey,, T.-M. Enari,, and M. Linko (ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose. VTT, Aulanko, Finland.
97. Manning, K. 1981. Improved viscometric assay for cellulase methods. J. Biochem. Biotechnol. 5: 189 202.
98. Markovic, O.,, D. Mislovicová,, P. Biely,, and K. Heinrichová. 1992. Chromogenic substrate for endopolygalacturonase detection in gels. J. Chromatogr. A 603: 243 246.
99. Matsuo, N.,, S. Kaneko,, A. Kuno,, H. Kobayashi,, and I. Kusakabe. 2000. Purification, characterization and gene cloning of two alpha-L-arabinofuranosidases from Streptomyces chartreusis GS901. Biochem. J. 346(Pt. 1): 9 15.
100. Mazeau, K.,, and S. Perez. 1998. The preferred conformations of the four oligomeric fragments of rhamnogalacturonan II. Carbohydr. Res. 311: 203 217.
101. McCartney, L.,, A. P. Ormerod,, M. J. Gidley,, and J. P. Knox. 2000. Temporal and spatial regulation of pectic (1→4)-beta-D-galactan in cell walls of developing pea cotyledons: implications for mechanical properties. Plant J. 22: 105 113.
102. McCleary, B. V. 1980. New chromogenic substrates for the assay of alpha-amylase and (1 leads to 4)-beta-Dglucanase. Carbohydr. Res. 86: 97 104.
103. McCleary, B. V. 1978. Simple assay procedure for beta- D-mannanase. Carbohydr. Res. 67: 213 221.
104. McDermid, K. P.,, C. W. Forsberg,, and C. R. MacKenzie. 1990. Purification and properties of an acetylxylan esterase from Fibrobacter succinogenes S85. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 3805 3810.
105. McKie, V. A.,, G. W. Black,, S. J. Millward-Sadler,, G. P. Hazlewood,, J. I. Laurie,, and H. J. Gilbert. 1997. Arabinanase A from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa exhibits both an endo- and an exo- mode of action. Biochem. J. 323(Pt. 2): 547 555.
106. McKie, V. A.,, J. P. Vincken,, A. G. Voragen,, L. A. van den Broek,, E. Stimson,, and H. J. Gilbert. 2001. A new family of rhamnogalacturonan lyases contains an enzyme that binds to cellulose. Biochem. J. 355: 167 177.
107. Mestechkina, N. M.,, O. V. Anulov,, N. I. Smirnova,, and V. D. Shcherbukhin. 2000. Composition and structure of a galactomannan macromolecule from seeds of Astragalus lehmannianus Bunge. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 36: 502 506.
108. Milagres, A. M. F.,, and R. M. Sales. 2001. Evaluating the basidiomycetes Poria medula-panis and Wolfiporia cocos for xylanase production. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 28: 522 526.
109. Miller, G. L. 1959. Dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 31: 426 428.
110. Mutter, M.,, C. M. Renard,, G. Beldman,, H. A. Schols,, and A. G. Voragen. 1998. Mode of action of RGhydrolase and RG-lyase toward rhamnogalacturonan oligomers: characterization of degradation products using RG-rhamnohydrolase and RG-galacturonohydrolase. Carbohydr. Res. 311: 155 164.
111. Nagy, T.,, K. Emami,, C. M. Fontes,, L. M. Ferreira,, D. R. Humphry,, and H. J. Gilbert. 2002. The membrane- bound alpha-glucuronidase from Pseudomonas cellulosa hydrolyzes 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronoxylooligosaccharides but not 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronoxylan. J. Bacteriol. 184: 4925 4929.
112. Nagy, T.,, D. Nurizzo,, G. J. Davies,, P. Biely,, J. H. Lakey,, D. N. Bolam,, and H. J. Gilbert. 2003. The alpha-glucuronidase, GlcA67A, of Cellvibrio japonicus utilizes the carboxylate and methyl groups of aldobiouronic acid as important substrate recognition determinants. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 20286 20292.
113. Naidu, G. S. N.,, and T. Panda. 1998. Production of pectolytic enzymes—a review. Bioprocess Eng. 19: 355 361.
114. Nelson, N. 1944. A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose. J. Biol. Chem. 153: 375 380.
115. Nidetzky, B.,, W. Steiner,, M. Hayn,, and M. Claeyssens. 1994. Cellulose hydrolysis by the cellulases from Trichoderma reesei: a new model for synergistic interaction. Biochem. J. 298: 705 710.
116. Nieves, R. A.,, Y. C. Chou,, M. E. Himmel,, and S. R. Thomas. 1995. Quantitation of Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase and Thermomonospora fusca E(3) exoglucanase using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA). Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 51- 2: 211 223.
117. Nishitani, K.,, and D. J. Nevins. 1991. Glucuronoxylan xylanohydrolase. A unique xylanase with the requirement for appendant glucuronosyl units. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 6539 6543.
118. Parker, K. N.,, S. Chhabra,, D. Lam,, M. A. Snead,, E. J. Mathur,, and R. M. Kelly. 2001. beta-Mannosidase from Thermotoga species. Methods Enzymol. 330: 238 246.
119. Parker, K. N.,, S. R. Chhabra,, D. Lam,, W. Callen,, G. D. Duffaud,, M. A. Snead,, J. M. Short,, E. J. Mathur,, and R. M. Kelly. 2001. Galactomannanases man2 and man5 from Thermotoga species: growth physiology on galactomannans, gene sequence analysis, and biochemical properties of recombinant enzymes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 75: 322 333.
120. Pere, J.,, A. Puolakka,, P. Nousiainen,, and J. Buchert. 2001. Action of purified Trichoderma reesei cellulases on cotton fibers and yarn. J. Biotechnol. 89: 247 255.
121. Ramos, L. P.,, A. Zandona Filho,, F. C. Deschamps,, and J. N. Saddler. 1999. The effect of Trichoderma cellulases on the fine structure of a bleached softwood kraft pulp. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 24: 371 380.
122. Ratanakhanokchai, K.,, K. L. Kyu,, and M. Tanticharoen. 1999. Purification and properties of a xylanbinding endoxylanase from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain K-1. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 694 697.
123. Rescigno, A.,, A. C. Rinaldi,, N. Curreli,, A. Olianas,, and E. Sanjust. 1994. A dyed substrate for the assay of endo-1,4-beta-glucanases. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 28: 123 129.
124. Ridley, B. L.,, M. A. O’Neill,, and D. Mohnen. 2001. Pectins: structure, biosynthesis, and oligogalacturoniderelated signaling. Phytochemistry 57: 929 967.
125. Ruiz-Arribas, A.,, J. M. Fernandez-Abalos,, P. Sanchez,, A. L. Garda,, and R. I. Santamaria. 1995. Overproduction, purification, and biochemical characterization of a xylanase (Xys1) from Streptomyces halstedii JM8. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 2414 2419.
126. Rutland, M. W.,, A. Carambassis,, G. A. Willing,, and R. D. Neuman. 1997. Surface force measurements between cellulose surfaces using scanning probe microscopy. Colloids Surf. A 123- 124: 369 374.
127. Sachslehner, A.,, G. Foidl,, N. Foidl,, G. Gubitz,, and D. Haltrich. 2000. Hydrolysis of isolated coffee mannan and coffee extract by mannanases of Sclerotium rolfsii. J. Biotechnol. 80: 127 134.
128. Sadana, J. C.,, and R. V. Patil. 1985. Synergism between enzymes of Sclerotium rolfsii involved in the solubilization of crystalline cellulose. Carbohydr. Res. 140: 111 120.
129. Sakamoto, T.,, and T. Sakai. 1995. Analysis of structure of sugar-beet pectin by enzymatic methods. Phytochemistry 39: 821 823.
130. Saluzzi, L.,, H. J. Flint,, and C. S. Stewart. 2001. Adaptation of Ruminococcus flavefaciens resulting in increased degradation of ryegrass cell walls. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 36: 131 137.
131. Samejima, M.,, J. Sugiyama,, K. Igarashi,, and K.-E. L. Eriksson. 1997. Enzymatic hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose. Carbohydr. Res. 305: 281 288.
132. Saraswat, V.,, and V. S. Bisaria. 1997. Biosynthesis of xylanolytic and xylan-debranching enzymes in Melanocarpus albomyces IIS 68. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 83: 352 357.
133. Sattler, W.,, H. Esterbauer,, O. Glatter,, and W. Steiner. 1989. The effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of the hydrolysis of cellulose. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 33: 1221 1234.
134. Sharrock, K. R. 1988. Cellulase assay methods: a review. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 17: 81 106.
135. Sheir-Neiss, G.,, and B. S. Montenecourt. 1984. Characterization of the secreted cellulases of Trichoderma reesei wild type and mutants during controlled fermentations. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 20: 46 53.
136. Shoemaker, S. P.,, and J. R. D. Brown. 1978. Characterization of endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanases purified from Trichoderma viride. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 523: 147 161.
137. Sieben, A. 1975. Cellulase and other hydrolytic enzyme assays using an oscillating tube viscometer. Anal. Biochem. 63: 214 219.
138. Sipat, A.,, K. A. Taylor,, R. Y. Lo,, C. W. Forsberg,, and P. J. Krell. 1987. Molecular cloning of a xylanase gene from Bacteroides succinogenes and its expression in Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 477 481.
139. Skjot, M.,, S. Kauppinen,, L. V. Kofod,, C. Fuglsang,, M. Pauly,, H. Dalboge,, and L. N. Andersen. 2001. Functional cloning of an endo-arabinanase from Aspergillus aculeatus and its heterologous expression in A. oryzae and tobacco. Mol. Genet. Genomics 265: 913 921.
140. Somogyi, M. 1952. Notes on sugar determination. J. Biol. Chem. 195: 19 23.
141. Suzuki, T.,, E. Kitagawa,, F. Sakakibara,, K. Ibata,, K. Usui,, and K. Kawai. 2001. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a family 52 beta-xylosidase gene (xysB) of a multiple-xylanase-producing bacterium, Aeromonas caviae ME-1. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 65: 487 494.
142. Taguchi, H.,, T. Hamasaki,, T. Akamatsu,, and H. Okada. 1996. A simple assay for xylanase using o-nitrophenyl- beta-D-xylobioside. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 60: 983 985.
143. Takahashi, R.,, K. Mizumoto,, K. Tajika,, and R. Takano. 1992. Production of oligosaccharides from hemicellulose of woody biomass by enzymatic-hydrolysis. 1. A simple method for isolating beta-D-mannanase-producing microorganisms. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 38: 1126 1135.
144. Ten, L. N.,, W. T. Im,, M. K. Kim,, M. S. Kang,, and S. T. Lee. 2004. Development of a plate technique for screening of polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms by using a mixture of insoluble chromogenic substrates. J. Microbiol. Methods 56: 375 382.
145. Tenkanen, M. 1998. Action of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae esterases in the deacetylation of hemicelluloses. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 27: 19 24.
146. Tenkanen, M.,, and K. Poutanen,. 1992. Significance of esterases in the degradation of xylans, p. 203 212. In J. G. Visser,, M. A. Beldman,, K.-V. Someren,, and A. G. J. Voragen (ed.), Xylans and Xylanases. Elsevier, New York, N.Y..
147. Tenkanen, M.,, J. Puls,, M. Ratto,, and L. Viikari. 1993. Enzymatic deacetylation of galactoglucomannans. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 39: 159 165.
148. Tenkanen, M.,, and M. Siika-aho. 2000. An alphaglucuronidase of Schizophyllum commune acting on polymeric xylan. J. Biotechnol. 78: 149 161.
149. Tenkanen, M.,, J. Thornton,, and L. Viikari. 1995. An acetylglucomannan esterase of Aspergillus oryzae—purification, characterization and role in the hydrolysis of Oacetyl- galactoglucomannan. J. Biotechnol. 42: 197 206.
150. Teramoto, A.,, and M. Fuchigami. 2000. Changes in temperature, texture, and structure of konnyaku (konjac glucomannan gel) during high-pressure-freezing. J. Food Sci. 65: 491 497.
151. Torto, N.,, T. Buttler,, L. Gorton,, G. Markovarga,, H. Stalbrand,, and F. Tjerneld. 1995. Monitoring of enzymatic- hydrolysis of ivory nut mannan using online microdialysis sampling and anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed electrochemical detection. Anal. Chim. Acta 313: 15 24.
152. Tuohy, M. G.,, D. J. Walsh,, P. G. Murray,, M. Claeyssens,, M. M. Cuffe,, A. V. Savage,, and M. P. Coughlan. 2002. Kinetic parameters and mode of action of the cellobiohydrolases produced by Talaromyces emersonii. Biochim. Biophys. Acta/Prot. Struct. Mol. Enzymol. 1596: 366 380.
153. van Tilbeurgh, H.,, M. Claeyssens,, and C. K. DeBruyne. 1982. The use of 4-methylumbelliferyl and other chromophoric glycosides in the study of cellulolytic enzymes. FEBS Lett. 149: 152 156.
154. Vlasenko, E. Y.,, A. I. Ryan,, C. F. Shoemaker,, and S. P. Shoemaker. 1998. The use of capillary viscometry, reducing end-group analysis, and size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering to characterize endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanases on carboxymethylcellulose: a comparative evaluation of the three methods. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 23: 350 359.
155. Vrsanska, M.,, and P. Biely. 1992. The cellobiohydrolase I from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414: action on cellooligosaccharides. Carbohydr. Res. 227: 19 27.
156. Wang, G.,, R. R. Marquardt,, H. Xiao,, and Z. Zhang. 1999. Development of a 96-well enzyme-linked solidphase assay for beta-glucanase and xylanase. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 1262 1267.
157. Whitehead, T. R.,, and R. B. Hespell. 1989. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a xylanase gene from Bacteroides ruminicola 23. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55: 893 896.
158. Willats, W. G.,, C. Orfila,, G. Limberg,, H. C. Buchholt,, G. J. van Alebeek,, A. G. Voragen,, S. E. Marcus,, T. M. Christensen,, J. D. Mikkelsen,, B. S. Murray,, and J. P. Knox. 2001. Modulation of the degree and pattern of methyl-esterification of pectic homogalacturonan in plant cell walls. Implications for pectin methyl esterase action, matrix properties, and cell adhesion. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 19404 19413.
159. Wood, T. M. 1971. The cellulase of Fusarium solani: purification and specificity of the beta-(1,4)-glucanase and the beta-D-glucosidase components. Biochem. J. 121: 353 362.
160. Wood, T. M.,, and S. I. McCrae. 1996. Arabinoxylandegrading enzyme system of the fungus Aspergillus awamori: purification and properties of an alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 45: 538 545.
161. Wood, T. M.,, and S. I. McCrae. 1977. Cellulase from Fusarium solani purification and properties of the C-1 component. Carbohydr. Res. 57: 117 133.
162. Wu, C. T.,, G. Leubner-Metzger,, F. Meins, Jr.,, and K. J. Bradford. 2001. Class I beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase are expressed in the micropylar endosperm of tomato seeds prior to radicle emergence. Plant Physiol. 126: 1299 1313.
163. Wyman, C. E.,, S. R. Decker,, M. E. Himmel,, J. W. Brady,, C. E. Skopec,, and L. Viikari,. 2005. Hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose, p. 995 1034. In S. Dimitriu (ed.), Polysaccharides: Structural Diversity and Functional Versatility. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y..
164. Yanai, T.,, and M. Sato. 2000. Purification and characterization of a novel alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Pichia capsulata X91. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 64: 1181 1188.
165. Zantinge, J. L.,, H. C. Huang,, and K. J. Cheng. 2002. Microplate diffusion assay for screening of betaglucanase- producing microorganisms. BioTechniques 33: 798, 800, 802.
166. Zauscher, S.,, and D. J. Klingenberg. 2000. Normal forces between cellulose surfaces measured with colloidal probe microscopy. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 229: 497 510.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error