Chapter 32 : Genetic Exchange in Gram-Positive Bacteria

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This chapter presents an overview of gene transfer systems and their applications in several important groups of gram-positive bacteria. Bacteriophage-mediated generalized transduction is an important method of genetic manipulation that can be accomplished using either lytic or temperate phages. The competent state is transiently induced when a culture of achieves a critical cell density. Whether or not this element retains the ability to transfer itself to other or has become inactivated by mutation remains to be determined. A section focuses on the lactococci and related food-fermenting bacteria. In the case of organisms like , the relative ease of transformation- and conjugation-based transfer methods might account for this trend. The use of the gene and the * cassette in the development of a counter selection system for described elsewhere in the chapter may be adaptable to various LAB strains, although this will need to be tested for each species. The primary focus of the chapter is on advances that have been developed for genetic analysis of and also on some basic protocols for particularly important types of genetic manipulation. In contrast to the gram bacteria, members of the genus belong to the cluster of so-called high-GC gram bacteria based on the nucleotide composition of their genomes.

Citation: Kristich C, Salomon C, Dunny G. 2007. Genetic Exchange in Gram-Positive Bacteria, p 756-799. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch32

Key Concept Ranking

Mobile Genetic Elements
Genetic Recombination
Genetic Elements
Bacterial Proteins
Microbial Evolution
Type IV Secretion Systems
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Image of FIGURE 1

Unrooted phylogenetic tree of selected gram bacteria based on 16S rRNA sequences. The sequences for each organism were obtained from the NCBI database and subjected to phylogenetic analysis assuming maximum parsimony and bootstrapping (500 times resampling). The length of the lines between the species corresponds to phylogenetic distance.

Citation: Kristich C, Salomon C, Dunny G. 2007. Genetic Exchange in Gram-Positive Bacteria, p 756-799. In Reddy C, Beveridge T, Breznak J, Marzluf G, Schmidt T, Snyder L (ed), Methods for General and Molecular Microbiology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817497.ch32
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