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Chatper 1 : Animal Bites

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Animal Bites, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Virtually any wild or domestic vertebrate animal can inflict bite, scratch, or other wounds to humans. Main considerations from animal-related injuries are rabies, wound infection, and systemic bacterial infections. The main injured body parts were arm and hand, leg and foot, and head and neck. Most mammals are susceptible to rabies virus, including domestic mammals, bats, and terrestric wildlife. Any terrestrial mammal that is not validly vaccinated or any bat species can be a source of human rabies. Most reported human deaths from rabies are due to dogs: ≥95% in China and India and >90% worldwide. Vaccination has significantly reduced the importance of dogs as rabies vectors in high-income countries. Nonvaccinated dogs, including puppies, illegally imported into high-income countries from enzootic areas are an emerging source of rabies. Worldwide, ~1% of reported human rabies deaths are due to cats. A municipality in Bahia state, Brazil, with ~16,000 inhabitants recorded 308 vampire bat attacks and three rabies deaths in 1992, and another municipality of similar size recorded five attacks and two deaths. Itching at an injured site or neurological manifestations points to rabies virus or as causative agents. Wounds should be promptly cleaned with water and soap and evaluated for rabies, tetanus, need for débridement, and wound infection. Infections are typically polymicrobial and grow three to five bacterial species per culture.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Animal Bites, p 7-12. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Skin Infections
0.64680153
Sporothrix schenckii
0.51282054
Clostridium tetani
0.51215607
0.64680153
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1

Dog-related injuries treated in United States hospital emergency departments, 2001. Rates are number per 105 populations (y axis) and are shown by age group (x axis, in years) and sex (females, dotted lines; males, solid lines). From reference 1212.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Animal Bites, p 7-12. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.2
Figure 1.2

Reported cases of animal rabies in the United States, 1972–2002. Results are given as number of cases (y axis) by year (x axis) and type of animal (wildlife and domestic animals). From reference 2956.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Animal Bites, p 7-12. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.3
Figure 1.3

Rabies in domestic animals in Europe, 1990–2002. Results are given as number of cases (y axis) by year (x axis) and type of animal (dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, and goats). Reproduced from reference 5988 with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Animal Bites, p 7-12. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch1
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References

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