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Chatper 14 : Human Community

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Human Community, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

“Community-acquired” is often used to describe all infections acquired outside hospitals. This broad sense aggregates community habitats such as homes, workplaces, and leisure venues. Here, the term is used more restrictively, for day care and schools, public places, and the “general” population. Determinants of endemicity in communities include municipal utilities (tap water, sanitation, and garbage), age of primoinfection, carrier prevalence, and herd (collective) immunity. Poorly integrated or reached minorities can be significant community infection reservoirs. Infection is acquired from carriers in the community, inhalation, ingestion (catered events), or inoculation. Control and preventive measures should involve community members, e.g., participation in programs for safe water, sanitation, vaccination, and elimination of breeding sites. The majority of adults are immune to vaccine-preventable agents, from vaccination or natural infection. Risks in day care include crowding, poor hygiene by small children and untrained staff, and inadequate facilities. Pharyngeal carriage of respiratory agents is 2–5 times more frequent in children in day care than in control children. In day care, spread from skin contact and saliva (licking and drooling) is likely. Major community-acquired diseases include respiratory tract infection (RTI), diarrhea, and STI. Mother-to-child transmitted infections are included because agents can be acquired in the community and because of the potential for lifelong disability.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14

Key Concept Ranking

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
0.46082428
Herpes simplex virus 1
0.45448464
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
0.44419304
0.46082428
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Figures

Image of Figure 14.1
Figure 14.1

Laboratory reports of adenovirus infections, Australia 1991–2000 (= 13,924). Reports (axis) are given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). From reference 6350. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.2
Figure 14.2

Invasive disease reported by FoodNet, United States, 1996–1999, (= 540, mainly serovar Typhimurium). Rate is given per 10 (axis), by age group (axis, in years), and sex (males, line; females, dots). From reference 7881.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.3
Figure 14.3

Laboratory reports of , Australia 1991–2000 (= 10,620). Reports (axis) are given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). From reference 6350. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.4
Figure 14.4

Incident hepatitis B reports, Australia, 2002 (= 400). Rate per 10 (axis, overall 2) is given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). From reference 8342. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.5
Figure 14.5

Gonococcal infection reports,Australia, 2002 (=6,247). Rate per 10 (axis, overall 32) is given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). From reference 8342. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.6
Figure 14.6

Rubella reports, Australia, 2002 (= 254). Rate per 10 (axis, overall 1.3) is given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). Reports included 56 cases in women of child-bearing age (15–49 years). From reference 8342. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.7
Figure 14.7

infection reports, Australia, 2002 (= 318). Rate per 10 (axis, overall 1.6) is given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). From reference 8342. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.8
Figure 14.8

Invasive meningococcal disease reports, Australia, 2002 (= 684, 53% B, 39% C). Rate per 10 (axis, overall 3.5) is given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). Age-specific rates were highest at age 0–4 years (13.6/10) and 15–19 years (10.3/10). From reference 8342. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.9
Figure 14.9

Laboratory reports of cytomegalovirus infections, Australia 1991–2000 (= 13,928). Reports (axis) are given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). From reference 6350. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.10
Figure 14.10

Laboratorconfirmed influenza reports, Australia, 2002 (=3,665, 99% A/H3N2). Rate per 10 (axis, overall 18.6) is given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). From reference 8342. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.11
Figure 14.11

Invasive pneumococcal disease reports, Australia, 2002 (= 2,271). Rate per 10 (axis, overall 11.5) is given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). Agespecific rates were highest at age 0–4 years (insert, 57/10) and >85 years (52/10). From reference 8342. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.12
Figure 14.12

Bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis reports, Australia, 2001 (= 771). Rate per 10 (axis, overall 4.0) is given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, dark; males, light). From reference 4567. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.13
Figure 14.13

Laboratory reports of Epstein-Barr virus infections, Australia, 1991–2000 (= 18,219). Reports (axis) are given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). From reference 6350. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.14
Figure 14.14

Laboratory reports of genital infections, Australia, 1991–2000 (∼30,000). Reports (axis) are given by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). 57% of reports were for age group 15–24 years. From reference 6350. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.15
Figure 14.15

Listeriosis reports, Australia, 2002 (= 59). Rate per 10 (axis, overall 0.3), by age groups (axis, in years) and sex (females, light; males, dark). From reference 8342. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.16
Figure 14.16

Reported tetanus cases, United States, 1998–2000. Number (left axis, = 130), rates/million/year (line, right axis, overall 0.16) is given by age groups (axis, in years) and lethality (dark, fatal). From reference 5747.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 14.1

Infectivity for selected agents and precautions in ambulatory and hospitalized patients (HP), by site

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.2

Risks from patients with CJD or their organs

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.3

Screening of inapparent women and men for STI

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.4

Pregnancy outcome of new infection in pregnancy, by trimester

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Human Community, p 335-392. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch14

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