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Chatper 20 : Genera A to Z

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Genera A to Z, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter provides entries that typically describe the modes of spread or acquisition (by droplet-air, by feces-food, from (in)vertebrates, from the environment, or by skin-blood), risks, clinical impact (reported cases, rates per 10 population), outbreaks, and control or preventive measures for many genera. Acquisition is from inhalation or trauma. can colonize hospitalized patients and cause invasive disease (zygomycosis) in patients with neutropenia, diabetes, or other immune impairments. Nosocomial outbreaks are a threat, including in the intensive care unit, and from hands or machines. spp. are gram-negative, intracellular, tick-borne ancestral bacteria of mammals having undergone several taxonomic revisions. In Perth, Australia, reduced use of third generation cephalosporins paralleled decreasing -associated diarrhea (CDAD) rates per 1,000 discharges from 2-3 in 1993-1998 to ~1 in 2000. Some infections seem self-limited, but, in general, growth is relentlessly progressive, cancerlike. There are four antigenically and genetically different types parainfluenzavirus from two genera: PIV1 and PIV3 from , and PIV2 and PIV4 from . Of ~70 species in 17 genera mainly and are reported in humans. Treatment options include third generation or extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Aerosols are generated in the throat and from skin lesions. Seronegative pregnant women, other adults, and hosts with impaired immunity are susceptible to complications.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20

Key Concept Ranking

Rift Valley fever virus
0.48406944
Murray valley encephalitis virus
0.46857545
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
0.46841308
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
0.4671669
0.48406944
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Figures

Image of Figure 20.1
Figure 20.1

Candidemia reports, England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2003 (=1,380). Rates are given per 10population (axis) by age (axis, years) and sex. From reference 3452. Reproduced with permission by Public Health Laboratory Service.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.2
Figure 20.2

Neuroinvasive West Nile virus disease, United States 1999-2004 (= 7,096). Reported rate per 10population (axis) by age groups (axis, years) and gender. From reference 3206.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.3
Figure 20.3

Reported giardiasis cases, United States 2002 (= 21,3000). Rates are given per 10population by states. NR, not reporting. From reference 3353.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.4
Figure 20.4

Risk groups of acute hepatitis C, United States, 1983-1996. Values are the percentage among all cases (axis) by reporting years (axis) and risks (IDU, sex, transfusion, health work). Asterisks indicate non- A, non-B hepatitis. From reference 173.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.5
Figure 20.5

Reported tuberculosis cases in 15 countries, 2002: Number of cases (axis, /10) are given by country (axis) and type: all forms and all ages (grey bars) and HIV co-infection at age 15-49 years (red bars). From reference 8116. Reproduced with permission by WHO.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.6
Figure 20.6

Reported primary and secondary syphilis, United States, 1982–2002: rates are given per 10(left axis), by years (axis) and sex. The maleto- female rate ratio is also given (right axis). From reference 1218.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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References

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Tables

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Table 20.1

Simplified taxonomy of human-infective agents (HIA), selected zoonotic or animal-infective agents (AIA), and environmental agents (EIA)

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Table 20.2

: tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF), louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF), and Lyme disease

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Table 20.3

Leishmaniases of humans: types, geography, agents, sandfly vectors, risks, and reservoirs

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Table 20.4

Levels of malaria endemicity and transmission

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Table 20.5

Clinical characteristics of four major human-infective spp.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Table 20.6

Selected arthropod-borne rickettsiae: vector, disease, and range

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Table 20.7

Overview of spp. by hemolysis on blood agar (β for complete), Lancefield serogroups (A-W), and major hosts

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20
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Table 20.8

Agents of tinea with crude relative frequencies, by source and type of tinea

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Genera A to Z, p 499-590. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch20

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