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Chatper 4 : Invertebrates

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Invertebrates, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter talks about hard ticks and vector mites, diurnal fleas and flies, diurnal mosquitoes, nocturnal mosquitoes, nocturnal bugs and soft ticks, and ectoparasites. Invertebrates comprise > 2 million species, mainly molluscs, helminths, and arthropods (with insects, spiders, and crustaceans). Hard ticks, vector mites, fleas, vector flies ( and ), and some mosquitoes (, , and ) mainly seek hosts during the day, while other mosquitoes (, , , and ), bugs, and bedbugs seek hosts at night. Developmental stages are eggs, larvae (three leg pairs), nymphs, and adults (four leg pairs). Ixodids can carry viruses, bacteria, and protozoa to humans. By area, ixodid ticks can be sources of viruses from at least three genera that cause flulike illness, viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), or encephalitis. Vector fleas attempt to regurgitate the bacterial bolus that blocks their feeding. Muscids are effective mechanical vectors of enteric bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Tabanids are suspected or confirmed mechanical vectors of some systemic bacteria. An obstacle to ecological understanding is one's inability to reliably distinguish zoonotic from anthroponotic and . Old World can carry viruses and protozoa to humans, New World bacteria and protozoa. Mainly nocturnal vectors include triatomine bugs, bedbugs, and soft ticks. Temporary ectoparasites are fly larvae and sandfleas that leave hosts after weeks. Residual ectoparasites are lice (Pediculus and Phthirus) and scabies mites that maintain themselves by continued autoinfection.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Invertebrates, p 65-86. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Rift Valley fever virus
0.48124894
Murray valley encephalitis virus
0.47975436
African swine fever virus
0.43554533
0.48124894
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Figures

Image of Figure 4.1
Figure 4.1

Feeding adult female. From WHO-TDR.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Invertebrates, p 65-86. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.2
Figure 4.2

Feeding adult female. © WHO/TDR 2003. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Invertebrates, p 65-86. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.3
Figure 4.3

Tiny . Hairs are clearly visible. © WHO/TDR 2003. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Invertebrates, p 65-86. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.4
Figure 4.4

bug. © WHO/TDR 2003. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Invertebrates, p 65-86. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

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Tables

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Table 4.1

Arthropod disease vectors: distinguishing features of adults

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Invertebrates, p 65-86. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.2

Host seeking and feeding behavior of main arthropod disease vectors

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Invertebrates, p 65-86. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.3

Some vectors of : habitats by continent

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Invertebrates, p 65-86. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch4

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