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Chatper 5 : Natural Environments

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Natural Environments, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the infections generated through natural environments such us marine habitats, freshwater habitats and floods, soil, plants, terrestrial biomes, dust, winds, and seasons. Agents include raw sewage and farm waste that flows into coastal waters pollutes beaches, lagoons, and life at sea. Coasts can be sources of toxic algal blooms, polluted seafoods and beach sands, and infections in humans. The concentration of enteric agents in freshwater varies seasonally, with a low in winter. Soil is a reservoir for microorganisms and macroorganisms, such as slugs, nematodes, and arthropods. Broadly grouped biomes are the topic of this chapter: tropical forests, other woodlands, grasslands, islands, arid lands, desert oases, barren lands (highlands and Arctic tundra), and caves. Respiratory agents from dust include viruses and bacteria, but mainly fungi. Infections out of season are suspicious of importation by regional or international travel, incipient outbreaks, or intentional release. Human activities vary with seasons, confounding climate effects on infectious disease transmission. Rains significantly affect environmental conditions for bacteria, helminths, and snails.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

Rift Valley fever virus
0.5356629
Infectious Diseases
0.5334358
Murray valley encephalitis virus
0.48908347
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
0.48273173
0.5356629
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Figures

Image of Figure 5.1
Figure 5.1

Laboratory reports of A and B infections in Australia, 1991–2000 10 years). The number of reports axis) is given by month of specimen collection axis) and type A virus, dotted line [ = 13,191]; B virus, solid line [ = 3,614]). From reference 6350. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.2
Figure 5.2

Laboratory reports of infection in Australia, 1991–2000 10 years; =18,968). The number of reports axis) is given by month of specimen collection axis). From reference 6350. Copyright by Commonwealth of Australia. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.3
Figure 5.3

Reported coccidioidomycosis cases in Arizona, 1998–2001 =1,551 in 1998; =2,203 in 2001). The number of reports axis) is given by month axis). Actual reports are shown as bars, and predicted numbers are shown as a line. From reference 4042.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.4
Figure 5.4

Reported cryptosporidiosis cases in the United States, 1999–2002 = 7,270). The number of reports axis) is given by month of illness axis) for selected age groups lines). From reference 3352.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.5
Figure 5.5

California serogroup encephalitis laboratory reports in the United States, 1993–2002. The number of reports axis, = 640) is given by month of onset axis). From reference 2956.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.6
Figure 5.6

Reported dengue fever cases in Brazil, 1994–2003 = 2.8 million). The number of reports axis) is given by month of reporting axis). January: dark bars. From reference 6932.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.7
Figure 5.7

Isolates of in Calcutta, India,March 1992–December 1998 =2,404). The number of isolates axis) is given by month axis) and serogroup black, group O1, = 1491; hatched, group O139, = 913). Letters A–J mark changes of dominant serogroup. From reference 482.

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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References

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Tables

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Table 5.1

Outbreaks from natural freshwaters lakes and ponds) by known infectious disease agents: United States, 1990–2002

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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Table 5.2

Characteristics of major deserts of the world

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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Table 5.3

Elevational limits of human-infective agents, by agent cluster and class

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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Table 5.4

Latitudinal limits of human-infective agents, by agent clusters and class

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
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Table 5.5

Four seasons: meteorologic and biologic characteristics and human activities

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 5.6

Agents and infections prevailing in cold or warm seasons, by agent cluster

Citation: Stürchler D. 2006. Natural Environments, p 89-124. In Exposure. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817510.ch5

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