Chapter 4 : Postharvest Handling and Processing Sources of Microorganisms and Impact of Sanitizing Procedures

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Postharvest Handling and Processing Sources of Microorganisms and Impact of Sanitizing Procedures, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817527/9781555813574_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817527/9781555813574_Chap04-2.gif


This chapter examines the conventional belief that high microbial populations in produce, intact or minimally processed, can be reduced to safe levels with disinfecting technology that is presently available. The concept of a highly efficacious disinfection strategy is supported by laboratory studies using various sanitizing agents and methods that have yielded impressive results, some even with reduction to undetectable levels. Warm (50°C) chlorine solutions delayed browning and reduced initial populations of several groups of microorganisms naturally occurring on iceberg lettuce but enhanced microbial growth during subsequent storage. The effectiveness of ozone gas for the inactivation of microorganisms on the surfaces of fruits and vegetables is influenced by concentration, exposure time, RH, temperature, microbial load, and surface properties of the commodity. When heat-treated apples were purposely injured and inoculated with pathogens, the postsanitation growth of microorganisms was greater. Microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria that are not usually affected by high CO levels tend to predominate when MAP is used, actually prolonging shelf life by producing compounds that can inhibit spoilage bacteria. A new potential treatment strategy focuses on antimicrobial substances produced by selected vegetables and microorganisms. The information captured in the chapter suggests that the efficacy of sanitizers depends on the type of produce, the microorganism present, and the application system. The popular misconception that postharvest treatments can function as killing steps for contaminated produce or as significant reducers of indigenous microbial populations is discussed in the chapter.

Citation: Fonseca J. 2006. Postharvest Handling and Processing Sources of Microorganisms and Impact of Sanitizing Procedures, p 85-120. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Food Safety
Fruits and Vegetables
Foodborne Illnesses
Free Radicals
Mineral Acids
Lactic Acid Bacteria
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Lettuce for ready-to-eat salads is sprayed with chlorine solution immediately after harvest.

Citation: Fonseca J. 2006. Postharvest Handling and Processing Sources of Microorganisms and Impact of Sanitizing Procedures, p 85-120. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Ackers, M.,, R. Pagaduan,, G. Hart,, K. D. Greene,, S. Abbott,, E. Mintz,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1997. Cholera and sliced fruit probably secondary transmission from an asymptomatic carrier in the United States. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 1:212214.
2. Adams, M. R.,, A. D. Hartley,, and L. J. Cox. 1989. Factors affecting the efficacy of washing procedures used in the production of prepared salads. Food Microbiol. 6:6877.
3. Al-Dagal, M.,, O. Mo,, D. Y. C. Fung,, and C. Kastner. 1992. A case study of the influence of microbial quality of air on product shelf life in a meat processing plant. Dairy Food Environ. Sanitation 12:6970.
4. Allende, A.,, E. Aguayo,, and F. Artes. 2004. Microbial and sensory quality of commercial fresh processed red lettuce throughout the production chain and shelf life. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 91:109117.
5. Allende, A.,, and F. Artés. 2003. UV-C radiation as a novel technique for keeping quality of fresh processed “Lollo Rosso” lettuce. Food Res. Int. 36:739746.
6. Allende, A.,, L. Jacxsens,, F. Devlieghere,, J. Debevere,, and F. Artes. 2004. Effect of superatmospheric oxygen packaging on sensorial quality, spoilage, and Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas caviae growth in fresh processed mixed salads. Assoc. Food Prot. 65:15651573.
7. Anderson, J. B.,, T. A. Shuster,, K. E. Hansen,, A. S. Levy,, and A. Volk. 2004. A camera's view of consumer food-handling behaviors. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 104:186191.
8. Angelillo, I. F.,, M. R. Foresta,, C. Scozzafava,, and M. Pavia. 2001. Consumers and foodborne diseases knowledge, attitudes and reported behavior in one region of Italy. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 64:161166.
9. Annous, B. A.,, A. M. Burke,, and J. E. Sites. 2004. Surface pasteurization of whole cantaloupes inoculated with Salmonella poona or Escherichia coli. J. Food Prot. 67:18761885.
10. Annous, B. A.,, G. M. Sapers,, A. M. Mattrazzo,, and D. C. R. Riordan. 2001 Efficacy of washing with commercial flatbed brush washer, using conventional and experimental washing agents, in reducing populations of Escherichia coli on artificially inoculated apples. J. Food Prot. 64:159163.
11. Babic, I.,, and A. E. Watada. 1996. Microbial populations of fresh-cut spinach leaves affected by controlled atmospheres. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 9:187193.
12. Bacon, R.T.,, J. N. Sofos,, P. A. Kendall,, K. E. Belk,, and G. C. Smith. 2003. Comparative analysis of acid resistance between susceptible and multi-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains cultured under stationary-phase acid tolerance-inducing and non-inducing conditions. J. Food Prot. 66:732740.
13. Bagamboula, C. F.,, M. Uyttendaele,, and J. Debevere. 2002. Growth and survival of Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri in minimally processed vegetables packed under equilibrium modified atmosphere and stored at 7°C and 12°C. Food Microbiol. 19:529536.
14. Bagamboula, C. F.,, M. Uyttendaele,, and J. Debevere. 2003. Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonneiand Sh. flexneri. Food Microbiol. 21:3342.
15. Baldwin, E. A.,, M.O. Nisperos-Carriedo,, and R. A. Baker. 1995. Use of edible coatings to preserve quality of lightly (and slightly) processed products. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 35:509524.
16. Bank, H. L.,, J. John,, M. K. Schmehl,, and R. J. Dratch. 1990. Bactericidal effectiveness of modulated UV light. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:38883889.
17. Bari, M. L.,, Y. Inatsu,, S. Kawasaki,, E. Nazuka,, and K. Isshiki. 2002. Calcinated calcium killing of Escherichia coli O157H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of tomatoes. J. Food Prot. 65:17061711.
18. Barriga, M. I.,, G. Trachy,, C. Willmot,, and R. E. Simard. 1991. Microbial changes in shredded iceberg lettuce stored under controlled atmospheres. J. Food Sci. 56:15861599.
19. Bartz, J. A. 1999.Washing fresh fruits and vegetables lessons from treatment of tomatoes and potatoes with water. Dairy Food Environ. Sanitation 19:853864.
20. Bartz, J. A.,, and R. K. Schowalter. 1981. Infiltration of tomatoes by bacteria in aqueous suspension. Phytopathology 71:515518.
21. Behrsing, J.,, S. Winkler,, P. Franz,, and R. Premier. 2000. Efficacy of chlorine for inactivation of Escherichia coli on vegetables. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 19:187192.
22. Benarde, M. A.,, B. M. Israel,, V. P. Olivieri,, and M. L. Granstorm. 1965. Efficiency of chlorine dioxide as a bactericide. Appl. Microbiol. 13:776780.
23. Bennik, M. H. J.,, W. V. Overbeck,, E. J. Smid,, and L. G. M. Gorris. 1999. Biopreservation in modified atmosphere stored mungbean sprouts the use of vegetableassociated bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 28:226232.
24. Best, M.,, M. E. Kennedy,, and F. Coates. 1990. Efficacy of a variety of disinfectants against Listeria spp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:377380.
25. Beuchat, L.R. 1998. Food Safety Issues World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
26. Beuchat, L. R.,, and R. E. Brackett. 1990. Inhibitory effect of raw carrots on Listeria monocytogenes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:17341742.
27. Beuchat, L. R.,, and R. E. Brackett. 1990. Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on lettuce as influenced by shredding, chlorine treatment, modified atmosphere packaging and temperature. J. Food Sci. 55:755758, 870.
28. Beuchat, L. R.,, B. V. Nail,, B. B. Adler,, and M. R. S. Clavero. 1998. Efficacy of spray application of chlorinated water in killing pathogenic bacteria on raw apples, tomatoes, and lettuce. J. Food Prot. 61:13051311.
29. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber,, and S. A. Sattar. 2000. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in fruits and vegetables by gamma irradiation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 57:9197.
30. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber,, and S. A. Sattar. 2001. Survival of hepatitis A virus on modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) lettuce. Food Microbiol. 18:95102.
31. Blake, D. M. 1995. Bibliography of Work on the Photocatalytic Removal of Hazardous Compounds from Water and Air, Update Number 1, to June 1995. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.
32. Boyette, M. D.,, D. F. Ritchie,, S. J. Carballo,, S. M. Blankenship,, and D. C. Sanders. 1993. Chlorination and postharvest disease control. HortTechnology. 3:395400.
33. Brackett, R. E. 1999. Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15:305311.
34. Brandl, M. T.,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2002. Fitness of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson in the cilantro phyllosphere. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:36143621.
35. Braun, R. H. 1986. Problem and solution to plugging of a finned-tube cooling coil in an air handler. ASHRAE Trans. 1B. 92:385387.
36. Buchanan, R. L.,, S. G. Edelson,, R. L. Miller,, and G. M. Sapers. 1999. Contamination of intact apples after immersion in an aqueous environment containing Escherichia coli O157H7. J. Food Prot. 62:444450.
37. Burt, S. 2004. Essential oils their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 94:223253.
38. Cai, R.,, Y. Kubota,, T. Shuin,, H. Sakai,, K. Hashimoto,, and A. Fujishima. 1992. Induction of cytotoxicity by photoexcited TiO2 particles. Cancer Res. 52:23462348.
39. Carlin, F.,, C. Nguyen-The,, A. Abreu da Silva,, and C. Cochet. 1996. Effects of carbon dioxide on the fate of Listeria moncytogenes, of aerobic bacteria and on the development of spoilage in minimally processed fresh endive. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 32:159172.
40. Carmichael, I.,, I. S. Harper,, M. J. Coventry,, P.W. J. Taylor,, J. Wan,, and M. W. Hickey. 1999. Bacterial colonization and biofilm development on minimally processed vegetables. J. Appl. Microbiol. 85:45S51S.
41. Chang, L. A.,, and S. J. Kays. 1981. Effect of low oxygen on sweet potato roots during storage. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 106:481483.
42. Cherry, J. P. 1999. Improving the safety of fresh produce with antimicrobials. Food Technol. 53:5458.
43. Ciccolini, L.,, P. Taillander,, A. M. Wilhelm,, H. Delmas,, and P. Strehaiano. 1997. Low frequency thermo-ultrasonication of Saccharomyces cerevisiae effects of temperature and ultrasonic power. Chem. Eng. J. 65:145149.
44. Costerton, J. W. 1995.Overview of microbial biofilms. J. Ind. Microbiol. 15:137140.
45. Croci, L.,, D. D. Medici,, C. Scalfaro,, A. Fiore,, and L. Toti. 2002. The survival of hepatitis A virus in fresh produce. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 73:2934.
46. Cundith, C. J.,, C. R. Kerth,, W. R. Jones,, T. A. McCaskey,, and D. L. Kuhlers. 2002. Air-cleaning system effectiveness for control of airborne microbes in a meat-processing plant. J. Food Sci. 67:11701174.
47. d'Armour, J.,, C. Gosselin,, J. Arul,, F. Castaigne,, and C. Willemont. 1993. Gamma-radiation affects cell wall composition of strawberries. J. Food Sci. 58:182185.
48. Davison, S.,, C. E. Benson,, and R. J. Eckroade. 1996. Evaluation of disinfectants against Salmonella enteriditis. Avian Dis. 40:272277.
49. Delaquis, P. J.,, P. L. Sholber,, and K. Stanich. 1999. Disinfection of mung bean seed with vaporized acetic acid. J. Food Prot. 62:953957.
50. Devlieghere, F.,, A. Vermeulen,, and J. Debevere. 2004. Chitosan antimicrobial activity, interactions with food components and applicability as a coating on fruit and vegetables. Food Microbiol. 21:703714.
51. Dong, H.,, T. P. Delaney,, D. W. Bauer,, and S. V. Beer. 1999. Harpin induces resistance in Arabidopsis through systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NIM1 gene. Plant J. 20:207215.
52. Dorman, H. J. D.,, and S. G. Deans. 2000. Antimicrobial agents from plants antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88:308316.
53. Doultree, J. C.,, J. D. Druce,, C. J. Birch,, D. S. Bowden,, and J. A. Marshall. 1999. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. J. Hosp. Infect. 41:5157.
54. Du, J.,, Y. Han,, and R. H. Linton. 2003. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas in reducing Escherichia coli O157H7 on apple surfaces. Food Microbiol. 20:583591.
55. Duizer, E.,, P. Bijkerk,, B. Rockx,, A. de Groot,, F. Twisk,, and M. Koopmans. 2004. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:45384543.
56. Dychdala, G. R., 1999. Chlorine and chlorine compounds, p. 131151. In S. S. Block (ed.), Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa.
57. Eckert, J. W.,, and N. F. Sommer. 1967. Control of disease of fruits and vegetables by post-harvest treatments. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 5:391432.
58. Edgar, R.,, and K. E. Aidoo. 2001. Microflora of blanched minimally processed fresh vegetables as components of commercial chilled ready-to-use meals. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 36:107110.
59. Ekran, M.,, C. Y. Wang,, and D. T. Krizek. 2001. UV-C radiation reduces microbial populations and deterioration in Cucurbia pepo fruit tissue. Environ. Exp. Bot. 45:19.
60. Escudero, E. M.,, L. Velazquez,, M. S. Di Genaro,, and A. M. S. de Guzman. 1999. Effectiveness of various disinfectants in the elimination of Yersinia enterocolitica on fresh lettuce. J. Food Prot. 62:665669.
61. Evans, J. A.,, S. L. Russel,, C. James,, and J. E. L. Corry. 2004. Microbial contamination of food refrigeration equipment. J. Food Eng. 62:225232.
62. Fett, W. F. 2000.Naturally occurring biofilms on alfalfa and other types of sprouts. J. Food Prot. 63:625632.
63. Fisher, T. L.,, and D. A. Golden. 1998. Fate of Escherichia coli O157H in ground apples used in cider production. J. Food Prot. 61:13721374.
64. Fonseca, J. M. 2005. New technologies currently being used for produce safety. Proc. N.J. Vegetable Growers Assoc. 50:7982.
65. Fonseca, J. M.,, J. W. Rushing,, and R. F. Testin. 2004. The anaerobic compensation point of fresh-cut watermelon and postprocess implications. HortScience. 39:562566.
66. Francis, G. A.,, and D. O'Beirne. 1998. Effects of the indigenous microflora of minimally processed lettuce on the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes. Int. J. Food Sci.Technol. 33:477488.
67. Francis, G. A.,, C. Thomas,, and D. O'Beirne. 1999. The microbial safety of minimally processed vegetables. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 34:122.
68. Francis, G. A.,, C. Thomas,, and D. O'Beirne. 2002. Effects of vegetable type and antimicrobial dipping on survival and growth of Listeria innocua and E. coli. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 37:711718.
69. Gandhi, M.,, and K. R. Matthews. 2003. Efficacy of chlorine and calcinated calcium treatment of alfalfa seeds and sprouts to eliminate Salmonella. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 87:301306.
70. Garcia, M. A.,, M. N. Martino,, and N. E. Zarizky. 1998. Plasticized starch-based coatings to improve strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa) quality and stability. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:37583767.
71. Garge, N.,, J. J. Churey,, and D. F. Splittstoesser. 1990. Effect of processing conditions on the microflora of fresh-cut vegetables. J. Food Prot. 53:701703.
72. Golden, D. A.,, E. J. Rhodehamel,, and D. A. Kautter. 1993. Growth of Salmonella spp. in cantaloupe, watermelon, and honeydew melons. J. Food Prot. 56:194196.
73. Gomez, R.,, M. Marina,, D. A. Begona,, and M. C. Pilar. 2002. New procedure for the detection of lactic acid bacteria in vegetables producing antibacterial substances. Lebensm.-Wiss. Technol. 35:284288.
74. Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.,, C. Y. Wang,, and G. J. Buta. 2004. UV-C irradiation reduces breakdown and chilling injury of peaches during cold storage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84:415422.
75. Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.,, C. Y. Wang,, J. G. Buta,, and D. T. Krizek. 2004. Use of UV-C irradiation to prevent decay and maintain postharvest quality of ripe “Tommy Atkins” mangos. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 36:775782.
76. Gorny, J. R. 1997. A summary of CA and MA recommendations for selected fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Proc. Controlled Atmos. Res. Conf. 5:3066.
77. Gorris, L. G. M.,, Y. Witte,, and E. J. Smid. 1994. Storage under moderate vacuum to prolong the keepability of fresh vegetables and fruits. Acta Hortic. 368:476486.
78. Gulati, B. R.,, P. B. Allwood,, C. W. Hedberg,, and S. M. Goyal. 2005. Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for the inactivation of calicivirus on strawberry, lettuce, and a food-contact surface. J. Food Prot. 64:14301434.
79. Guo, X.,, J. Chen,, R. E. Brackett,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2001. Survival of Salmonellae on and in tomato plants from the time of inoculation at flowering and early stages of fruit development through fruit ripening. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:4760-4764.
80. Hagenmaier, R. D.,, and R. A. Baker. 1997. Low-dose irradiation of cut-iceberg lettuce in modified atmosphere packaging. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45:28642868.
81. Hampson, B. C.,, and D. Kaiser. 1995. Air quality in the food-processing environment a cleanable HEPA filtration system. Dairy Food Environ. Sanitation. 15:371374.
82. Han, Y.,, J. D. Floros,, R. H. Linton,, S. S. Nielsen,, and P. E. Nelson. 2002. Response surface modeling for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157H7 on green peppers (Capsicum annuum) by ozone gas treatment. Food Microbiol. Safety. 62:11881193.
83. Han, Y.,, D. M. Sherman,, R. H. Linton,, S. S. Nielson,, and P. E. Nelson. 2000. The effects of washing and chlorine dioxide gas on survival and attachment of Escherichia coli O157H7 to green pepper surfaces. Food Microbiol. 17:521533.
84. Han, Y.,, R. H. Linton,, S. S. Nielsen,, and P. E. Nelson. 2004. Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes on green peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) by gaseous and aqueous and chlorine dioxide and water washing and its growth at 7°C. Int. Assoc. Food Prot. 64:1730-1738.
85. Han, Y.,, T. L. Selby,, K. K. Schultze,, P. E. Nelson,, and R. H. Linton. 2004. Decontamination of strawberries using batch and continuous chlorine dioxide gas treatments. J. Food Prot. 67:24502455.
86. Hedlung, K. 2002. Soil microbial community structure in relation to vegetation management on former agricultural land. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34:12991307.
87. Hillman, P.,, F. Gebremedhin,, and R. Warner. 1992. Ventilation system to minimize airborne bacteria, dust, humidity and ammonia in calf nurseries. J. Dairy Sci. 75:13051312.
88. Holzapfel, W.,, H. R. Geisen,, and U. Schillinger. 1995. Biological preservation of foods with reference to protective cultures, bacteriocins and food-grade enzymes. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 24:343362.
89. Howard, L. R.,, and R. W. Buescher. 1989. Cell wall characteristics of gamma-radiated refrigerated cucumber pickles. J. Food Sci. 54:12661268.
90. Howard, L. R.,, G. H. Miller,, and A. B. Wagner. 1995. Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes in irradiated Pico de Gallo. J. Food Sci. 60:461464.
91. Itoh, Y.,, Y. Sugita-Konishi,, F. Kasuga,, M. Iwaki,, Y. Hara-Kudo,, N. Saito,, Y. Noguchi,, H. Konuma,, and S. Kumagai. 1998. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157H7 present in radish sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:15321535.
92. Izumi, H. 1999. Electrolyzed water as a disinfectant for fresh-cut vegetables. J. Food Sci. 64:536539.
93. Jacobs, J. L.,, and G. W. Sundin. 2001. Effect of solar UV-B radiation on a phyllosphere bacterial community. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:54885496.
94. Jacxsens, L.,, F. Devlieghere,, P. Ragaert,, E. Vanneste,, and J. Debevere. 2003. Relation between microbiological quality, metabolite production and sensory quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere packaged fresh-cut produce. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 83:263280.
95. Jenner, P. M.,, E. C. Hagan,, J. M. Taylor,, E. L. Cook,, and O. G. Fitzhugh. 1964. Food flavourings and compounds of related structure. I. Acute oral toxicity. Food Cosmetol. Toxicol. 2:327343.
96. Johannessen, G. S.,, S. Loncarevic,, and H. Kruse. 2002. Bacteriological analysis of fresh produce in Norway. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 77:199204.
97. Kakiomenou, K.,, C. Tassou,, and G. Nychas. 1996. Microbiological, physiochemical and organoleptic changes of shredded carrots stored under modified storage. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 28:130.
98. Kangasjarvi, J.,, J. Talvinen,, M. Ultriainen,, and R. Karjalainen. 1994. Plant defense systems induced by ozone. Plant Cell Environ. 17:783794.
99. Kim, C.,, Y. C. Hung,, and R. E. Brackett. 2000. Roles of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water and chemically modified water for the inactivation of food-related pathogens. J. Food Prot. 63:1924.
100. Kim, G.,, D. Kim,, D. Cho,, and S. Cho. 2003. Bactericidal effect of TiO2 photocatalyst on selected food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Chemosphere. 52:277281.
101. Kim, J.,, A. E. Yousef,, and S. Dave. 1999. Application of ozone and enhancing the microbiological safety and quality of foods a review. J. Food Prot. 62:10711087.
102. Koseki, S.,, and K. Itoh. 2004. Effect of nitrogen gas packaging on the quality and microbial growth of fresh-cut vegetables under low temperatures. Int. Assoc. Food Prot. 65:326332.
103. Koseki, S.,, and K. Itoh. 2004. Prediction of microbial growth in fresh cut vegetables treated with acidic electrolyzed water during storage under various temperature conditions. Int. Assoc. Food Prot. 64:19351942.
104. Koseki, S.,, S. Isobe,, and K. Itoh. 2004. Efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water ice for pathogen control on lettuce. J. Food Prot. 67:25442549.
105. Koseki, S.,, K. Yoshida,, S. Isobe,, and K. Itoh. 2005. Efficacy of acidic electrolized water for microbial decontamination of cucumbers and strawberries. J. Food Prot. 67:12471251.
106. Kubota, Y.,, T. Shuin,, C. Kawasaki,, M. Hosaka,, H. Kitamura,, R. Cai,, H. Sakai,, K. Hashimoto,, and A. Fujishima. 1994. Photokilling of T-24 human bladder cancer cells with titanium dioxide. Br. J. Cancer. 70:11071111.
107. Lee, S. Y.,, M. Costello,, and D. H. Kang. 2004. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer of lettuce leaves. J. Food Prot. 67:13711376.
108. Leistner, L. 2000. Basic aspects of food preservation by hurdle technology. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 55:181186.
109. Leverentz, B.,, J. J. Wojciech,, W. S. Conway,, R. A. Saftner,, Y. Fuchs,, C. E. Sams,, and M. J. Camp. 2000. Combining yeasts or a bacterial biocontrol agent and heat treatment to reduce postharvest decay of “Gala” apples. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 21:8794.
110. Leverentz, B.,, W. S. Conway,, M. J. Camp,, W. J. Janisiewicz,, T. Abuladze,, M. Yang,, R. Saftner,, and A. Sulakvelidze. 2003. Biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut produce by treatment with lytic bacteriophages and a bacteriocin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:45194526.
111. Li, Y.,, R. E. Brackett,, J. Chen,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2001. Survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157H7 inoculated onto cut lettuce before heating in chlorinated water, followed by storage at 5 or 15 degrees C. J. Food Prot. 64:305309.
112. Liao, C. H.,, D. E. McCallus,, and J. M. Wells. 1993. Calcium-dependent pectate lyase production in the softrotting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Phytopathology. 83:813818.
113. Liao, C. H.,, and P. H. Cooke. 2001. Response to trisodium phosphate of Salmonella Chester attached to fresh-cut green pepper slices. Can. J. Microbiol. 47:2532.
114. Li-Cohen, A. E.,, and C. M. Bruhn. 2002. Safety of consumer handling of fresh produce from the time of purchase to the plate a comprehensive consumer survey. J. Food Prot. 65:12871296.
115. Lin, C.-M.,, S. S. Moon,, M. P. Doyle,, and K. H. McWatters. 2002. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157H7, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes on lettuce by hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid and by hydrogen peroxide with mild heat. J. Food Prot. 65:12151220.
116. Liu, H.,, Y. Du,, X. Wang,, and L. Sun. 2004. Chitosan kills bacteria through cell membrane damage. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 95:147155.
117. Lukasik, J.,, M. L. Bradley,, T. M. Scott,, M. Dea,, A. Koo,, W. Hsu,, J. A. Bartz,, and S. R. Farrah. 2003. Reduction of poliovirus, bacteriophages, Salmonella montevideo, andEscherichia coli O157H7 on strawberries by physical and disinfectant washes. J. Food Prot. 66:188193.
118. Lunden, J.,, T. Autio,, A. Markkula,, S. Hellstrom,, and H. Korleala. 2003. Adaptive and cross-adaptive responses of persistent and non-persistent Listeria moncytogenes strains to disinfectants. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 82:265272.
119. Magkos, F.,, F. Arvaniti,, and A. Zampelas. 2003. Putting the safety of organic food into perspective. Nutr. Res. Rev. 16:211221.
120. Mcguire, R. G.,, and R. D. Hagenmaier. 2004. Shellac formulations to reduce epiphytic survival of coliform bacteria on citrus fruit post harvest. Int. Assoc. Food Prot. 66:17561760.
121. McKellar, R. C.,, J. Odumeru,, T. Zhou,, A. Harrison,, D. G. Mercer,, J. C. Young,, X. Lu,, J. Boulter,, P. Piyasena,, and S. Karr. 2004. Influence of a commercial warm chlorinated water treatment and packaging on the shelf-life of ready-to-use lettuce. Food Res. Int. 37:343354.
122. Meneley, J. C.,, and M. E. Stanghelline. 1974. Detection of enteric bacteria within locular tissue of healthy cucumbers. J. Food Sci. 39:12671268.
123. Mereghetti, L.,, R. Quentin,, N. Marquet-Van Der Mee,, and A. Audurier. 2000. Low sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to quaternary ammonium compounds. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:50835086.
124. Michaels, B.,, C. Keller,, M. Blevins,, G. Paoli,, T. Ruthman,, E. Todd,, and C. J. Griffith. 2004. Prevention of food worker transmission of foodborne pathogens risk assessment and evaluation of effective hygiene intervention strategies. Food Serv. Technol. 4:3149.
125. Michaels, B.,, V. Gangar,, H. Schattenberg,, M. Blevins,, and T. Ayers. 2003. Effectiveness of cleaning methodologies used for removal of physical, chemical and microbiological residues from produce. Food Serv. Technol. 3:915.
126. Mukherjee, A.,, D. Speh,, E. Dyck,, and F. Diez-Gonzales. 2004. Preharvest evaluation of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157H7 in organic and conventional produce grown by Minnesota farmers. J. Food Prot. 67:894900.
127. Nakamura, S.,, and A. Hatanaka. 2002. Green-leaf-derived c6-aroma compounds with potent antibacterial action that act on both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Agric. Food Chem. 50:76397644.
128. Nguyen-the, C.,, and F. Carlin. 1994. The microbiology of minimally processed fresh fruits and vegetables. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 34:371401.
129. Nortje, G. L.,, E. Nel,, E. Jordan,, R. T. Naude,, W. H. Holzafel,, and R. J. Grimbeek. 1989. A microbiological survey of fresh meat in the supermarket trade. Part I. Carcasses and contact surfaces. Meat Sci. 25:8197.
130. Nortje, G. L.,, E. Nel,, E. Jordan,, R. T. Naude,, W. H. Holzafel,, and R. J. Grimbeek. 1990. A quantitative survey of a meat production chain to determine the microbial profile of the final product. J. Food Prot. 53:411417.
131. Nuanualsuwan, S.,, T. Mariam,, S. Himathongkham,, and D. O. Cliver. 2002. Ultraviolet inactivation of feline calicivirus, human enteric viruses and coliphage. Photochem. Photobiol. 76:406410.
132. O'Connor-Shaw, R. E.,, R. Roberts,, A. L. Ford,, and S. M. Nottingham. 1994. Shelf life of minimally processed honeydew, kiwifruit, papaya, pineapple, and cantaloupe. J. Food Sci. 59:12021206, 1215.
133. Odlaug, T. E. 1981. Antimicrobial activity of halogens. J. Food Prot. 44:608613.
134. Odumeru, J. A.,, J. Boulter,, K. Knight,, X. Lu,, and R. McKellar. 2003. Assessment of a wash treatment with warm chlorinated water to extend the shelf life of ready-to-use lettuce. J. Food Quality. 26:197210.
135. Ogden, I.D.,, D. R. Fenlon,, A. J. A. Vinten,, and D. Lewis. 2001. The fate of Escherichia coli O157 in soil and its potential to contaminate drinking water. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 66:111117.
136. Ollis, D. F.,, and H. El-Akabi. 1993. Photocatalytic Purification and Treatment of Water and Air. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
137. Ordonez, J. A.,, M. A. Aguilera,, M. L. Garcia,, and B. Sanz. 1987. Effect of combined ultrasonic and heat treatment (thermoultrasonication) on the survival of a strain of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Dairy Res. 54:6167.
138. Orsat, V.,, Y. Gariepy,, G. S. V. Raghaven,, and D. Lyew. 2001. Radio-frequency treatment for ready-to-eat carrots. Food Res. Int. 34:527536.
139. Park, C. M.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 1999. Evaluation of sanitizers for killing Escherichia coli O157H7, Salmonella, and naturally occurring microorganisms on cantaloupes, honeydew melons, and asparagus. Dairy Food Environ. Sanitation. 19:842847.
140. Park, C. M.,, Y. C. Hung,, M. P. Doyle,, G. O. I. Ezeike,, and C. Kim. 2001. Pathogen reduction and quality of lettuce treated with electrolyzed oxidizing and acidified chlorinated water. Food Microbiol. Safety. 66:13681372.
141. Pingulkar, K.,, A. Kamat,, and D. Bongirwar. 2001. Microbiological quality of fresh leafy vegetables, salad components and ready-to-eat salads an evidence of inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in tomatoes. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 52:1523.
142. Poubol, J.,, and H. Izumi. 2005. Shelf life and microbial quality of fresh-cut mango cubes stored in high CO2 atmospheres. J. Food Sci. 70:6974.
143. Prakash, A.,, P. Inthajak,, H. Huibregtse,, F. Caporaso,, and D. M. Foley. 2000. Effects of low-dose gamma irradiation and conventional treatments on shelf life and quality characteristics of diced celery. J. Food Sci. 65:10701075.
144. Prusky, D.,, D. Eshel,, I. Kobiler,, N. Yakoby,, D. Beno-Moualem,, M. Ackerman,, Y. Zuthji,, and R. B. Arie. 2001. Postharvest chlorine treatments for the control of the persimmon black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 22:271277.
145. Raiden, R. M.,, S. S. Sumners,, J. D. Eifert,, and N. D. Pierson. 2003. Efficacy of detergents in removing Salmonella and Shigella spp. from the surface of fresh produce. J. Food Prot. 66:22102215.
146. Rajapakse, N. C.,, E. W. Hewett,, N. H. Banks,, and D. J. Cleland. 1992. Vacuum infiltration with calcium chloride influences oxygen distribution in apple fruit flesh. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 1:221229.
147. Rayner, J.,, R. Veeh,, and J. Flood. 2004. Prevalence of microbial biofilms on selected fresh produce and household surfaces. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 95:2939.
148. Reina, L. D.,, H. P. Fleming,, and E. G. Humphries. 1995. Microbiological control of cucumber hydrocooling water with chlorine dioxide. J. Food Prot. 58:541546.
149. Riordan, D. C. R.,, G. M. Sapers,, and B. A. Annous. 2000. The survival of Escherichia coli O157H7 in the presence of Penicillium expansum and Glomerella cingulata in wounds on apple surfaces. J. Food Prot. 63:16371642.
150. Robbs, P.,, J. Bartz,, G. McFie,, and N. Hodge. 1996. Potential inoculum sources for decay of fresh cut celery. J. Food Sci. 61:449452, 455.
151. Roberts, R. G.,, and S. T. Reymond. 1994. Chlorine dioxide for reduction of postharvest pathogen inoculum during handling of tree fruits. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:28642868.
152. Rodgers, S. K.,, J. N. Cash,, M. Siddiq,, and E. T. Ryser. 2004. A comparison of different chemical sanitizers for inactivating Escherichia coli O157H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in solution and on apples, strawberries, lettuce and cantaloupe. J. Food Prot. 67:721731.
153. Roller, S.,, and P. Seedhar. 2002. Carvacrol and cinnamic acid inhibit microbial growth in fresh-cut melon and kiwifruit at 4°C and 8°C. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 35:390394.
154. Rooner, A. B.,, and A. C. L. Wong. 1993. Biofilm development and sanitizer inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium on stainless steel and Buna-n rubber. J. Food Prot. 56:750758.
155. Rowbury, R. J. 1995. An assessment of environmental factors influencing acid tolerance and sensitivity in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and other enterobacteria. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 20:333337.
156. Rushing, J. W. 2001. A case study of salmonellosis linked to the consumption of fresh market tomatoes and the development of a HACCP program. HortScience. 36:2932.
157. Samish, Z.,, R. Etinger-Tulzynsky,, and M. Bick. 1963. The microflora within the tissue of fruits and vegetables. J. Food Sci. 28:259266.
158. Sapers, G. M. 2001. Efficacy of washing and sanitizing methods for disinfection of fresh fruit and vegetable products. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 39:305311.
159. Sapers, G. M.,, L. Garzarella,, and V. Pilizota. 1990. Application of browning inhibitors to cut apple and potato by vacuum and pressure infiltration. J. Food Sci. 55:10491053.
160. Sapers, G. M.,, R. L. Miller,, and A. M. Mattrazzo. 1999. Effectiveness of sanitizing agents in inactivating Escherichia coli in golden delicious apples. J. Food Sci. 64:734737.
161. Sapers, G. M.,, R. L. Miller,, M. Jantschke,, and A. M. Mattrazzo. 2000. Factors limiting the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide washes for decontamination of apples containing Escherichia coli. J. Food Sci. 65:529532.
162. Sapers, G. M.,, P. N. Walker,, J. E. Sites,, B. A. Annous,, and D. R. Eblen. 2003. Vaporphase decontamination of apples inoculated with Escherichia coli. J. Food Sci. 68:10031007.
163. Sarig, P.,, T. Zahavi,, Y. Zutkhi,, S. Yannai,, N. Lisker,, and R. Ben-Arie. 1996. Ozone for control of post-harvest decay of table grapes caused by Rhizopus stolonifer. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 48:403415.
164. Savard, T.,, C. Beaulieu,, I. Boucher,, and C. P. Champagne. 2004. Antimicrobial action of hydrolysed chitosan against spoilage yeasts and lactic acid bacteria of fermented vegetables. Int. Assoc. Food Prot. 65:828833.
165. Scott, V. N. 1989. Interaction of factors to control microbial spoilage of refrigerated foods. J. Food Prot. 52:431435.
166. Seo, K. H.,, and J. F. Frank. 1999. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157H7 into lettuce leaf surface and bacterial viability in response to chlorine treatments. J. Food Prot. 62:39.
167. Seymour, I. J.,, D. Burfoot,, R. L. Smith,, L. A. Cox,, and A. Lockwood. 2002. Ultrasound decontamination of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 37:547557.
168. Seymour, I. J.,, and H. Appleton. 2001. Foodborne viruses and fresh produce. J. Appl. Microbiol. 91:759773.
169. Sharma, M.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2003. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157H7 to commercially available alkaline cleaners and subsequent resistance to heat and sanitizers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:17951803.
170. Sherba, G.,, R. M. Weigel,, and W. D. O'Brien, Jr. 1991. Quantitative assessment of the germicidal efficacy of ultrasonic energy. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:20792084.
171. Sinde, E.,, and J. Carballo. 2000. Attachment of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes to stainless steel, rubber and polytetrafluorethylene the influence of free energy and the effect of commercial sanitizers. Food Microbiol. 17:439447.
172. Singh, P. K.,, M. R. Parsek,, E. P. Greenberg,, and M. J. Welsh. 2002. A component of innate immunity prevents bacterial biofilm development. Nature. 417:552555.
173. Smid, E. J.,, L. Hendriks,, H. A. M. Boerrigter,, and L. G. M. Gorris. 1996. Surface disinfection of tomatoes using the natural plant compound transcinnamaldehyde. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 9:343350.
174. Smilanick, J. L.,, C. Crisosto,, and F. Mlikota. 1999. Postharvest use of ozone on fresh fruit. Perishables Handling Q. 99:1014.
175. Smith, S.,, M. Dunbar,, D. Tucker,, and D. W. Schaffner. 2003. Efficacy of a commercial produce wash on bacterial contamination of lettuce in a food service setting. J. Food Prot. 66:23592361.
176. Solomon, E. B.,, H. J. Pang,, and K. R. Matthews. 2003. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157H7 on lettuce plants following spray irrigation with contaminated water. J. Food Prot. 12:21982202.
177. Solomon, E. B.,, S. Yaron,, and K. R. Matthews. 2002. Transmission and internalization of Escherichia coli O157H7 from contaminated manure and irrigation water into lettuce plant tissue. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:397400.
178. Somers, E. B.,, J. L. Schoeni,, and A. C. L. Wong. 1994. Effect of trisodium phosphate on biofilm and planktonic cells of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 22:269276.
179. Soriano, J. M.,, H. Rico,, J. C. Moltó,, and J. Mañes. 2002. Assessment of the microbiological quality and wash treatments of lettuce served in University restaurants. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 58:123128.
180. Stevens, V.,, A. Khan,, J. Y. Lu,, C. L. Wilson,, P. L. Pusey,, E. C. K. Igwegbe,, K. Kabwe,, Y. Mafolo,, J. Liu,, E. Chalutz,, and S. Drobys. 1997. Integration of ultraviolet (UV-C) light with yeast treatment for control of postharvest storage rots of fruits and vegetables. Biol. Control. 10:98103.
181. Stevenson, S. M. L.,, S. R. Cook,, S. J. Bach,, and T. A. McAllister. 2004. Effect of water source, dilution, storage, and bacterial and fecal loads on the efficacy of electrolized oxidizing water for the control of Escherichia coli O157H7. J. Food Prot. 67:13771383.
182. St. Georges, S.D.,, and J. J. Feddes. 1995. Removal of airborne swine dust by electrostatic precipitation. Can. Agric. Eng. 37:103107.
183. Stopforth, J. D.,, J. S. Ikeda,, P. A. Kendall,, and J. N. Sofos. 2004. Survival of acid-adapted or non-adapted Escherichia coli O157H7 in apple wounds and surrounding tissue following chemical treatments and storage. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90:5161.
184. Tanner, R. S. 1989. Comparative and integrated controls of Botrytis cinerea on apple with Trichoderma harzianum. Biol. Control. 1:5962.
185. Taormina, P. J.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2002. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in commercial food-processing equipment cleaning solutions and subsequent sensitivity J. Appl. Microbiol. 92:7180.
186. Tauxe, R. V. 1997. Emerging foodborne disease an evolving public health challenge. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:425434.
187. Thomas, L.,, M. R. Clarkson,, and J. Delves-Broughton,. 2000. Nisin, p. 463524. In A. S. Naidu (ed.), Natural Food Antimicrobial Systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
188. Thunberg, R. L.,, T. T. Tran,, R. W. Bennet,, R. N. Matthews,, and N. Belay. 2004. Microbial evalution of selected fresh produce obtained at retail markets. Int. Assoc. Food Prot. 65:677682.
189. Tschape, H.,, R. Prager,, W. Streckel,, A. Fruth,, E. Tietze,, and G. Bohme. 1995. Verotoxinogenic Citrobacter freundii associated with severe gastroenteritis and cases of haemolytic ureamic syndrome in a nursery school green butter as the infection source. Epidemiol. Infect. 114:441450.
190. Ukuku, D. O.,, and G. M. Sapers. 2001. Effect of sanitizer treatments on Salmonella Stanley attached to the surface of cantaloupe and cell transfer to fresh-cut tissues during cutting practices. J. Food Prot. 64:12861291.
191. Ukuku, D. O.,, V. Pilizota,, and G. M. Sapers. 2001. Influence of washing treatment on native microflora and Escherichia coli population of inoculated cantaloupes. J. Food Safety. 21:3147.
192. Venkitanarayanan, K. S.,, G. O. I. Ezeike,, Y. C. Hung,, and M. P. Doyle. 1999. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on plastic kitchen cutting boards by electrolyzed oxidizing water. J. Food Prot. 62:857860.
193. Vijayakumar, C.,, and C. E. Wolf-Hall. 2003. Evaluation of household sanitizers for reducing levels of Escherichia coli on iceberg lettuce. J. Food Prot. 65:16461650.
194. Watkins, J.,, and K. P. Sleath. 1981. Isolation and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes from sewage, sewage sludge and river water. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 50:19.
195 . Wei, C.,, W. Y. Lin,, Z. Zainal,, N. E. Williams,, K. Zhu,, A. P. Kruzic,, R. L. Smith,, and K. Rajeshwar. 1994. Bactericidal activity of TiO2 photocatalyst in aqueous media toward a solar-assisted water disinfection system. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28:934938.
196. Weissinger, W. R.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2000. Comparison of aqueous chemical treatments to eliminate Salmonella on alfalfa. J. Food Prot. 63:14751482.
197. Wells, J. M.,, and J. E. Butterfield. 1997. Salmonella contamination associated with bacterial soft rot of fresh fruits and vegetables in the marketplace. Plant Dis. 81:867872.
198. Wright, J. R.,, S. S. Sumner,, C. R. Hackney,, M. D. Pierson,, and B. W. Zoecklein. 2000. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157H7 on apples using wash and chemical sanitizer treatments. Dairy Food Environ. Sanitation. 20:120126.
199. Yam, K. L.,, P. T. Takhistov,, and J. Miltz. 2005. Intelligent packaging concepts and applications. J. Food Sci. 70:110.
200. Yaun, B. R.,, S. S. Summer,, J. D. Eifert,, and J. E. Marcy. 2004. Inhibition of pathogens on fresh produce by ultraviolet energy. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90:18.
201. Zagory, D. 1999. Effects of post-processing handling and packaging on microbial populations. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15:313321.
202. Zhang, S.,, and J. M. Farber. 1996. The effects of various disinfectants against Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut vegetables. Food Microbiol. 13:311321.
203. Zhao, T.,, M. P. Doyle,, and P. Zhao. 2004. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in a biofilm by competitive-exclusion microorganisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:39964003.
204. Zhuang, R.-Y.,, L. R. Beuchat,, and F. J. Angulo. 1995. Fate of Salmonella montevideo on and in raw tomatoes as affected by temperature and treatment with chlorine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:21272131.
205. Zhuang, R. Y.,, and L.R. Beuchat. 1996. Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate for killing Salmonella montevideo on tomatoes. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 22:97100.
206. Zivanovic, S.,, S. Chi,, and A. F. Draughon. 2005. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan films enriched with essential oils. J. Food Sci. 70:4551.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error