Chapter 5 : Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817527/9781555813574_Chap05-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817527/9781555813574_Chap05-2.gif


This chapter focuses on understanding and addressing the food safety needs of the fresh-cut-produce sector. The properties that make fresh-cut fruits and vegetables unique also pose equally unique challenges for their commercial development. Temperature control is an important factor for maintaining the quality and shelf lives of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Vegetable commodities include tomato, zucchini, pepper, sweet potato, and jicama. In contrast to those of the whole-produce commodity, shelf life and microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce are severely jeopardized when the produce is stored at temperatures permissive of bacterial growth (above 4№C). Another factor that is crucial to the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce is the sanitization of equipment and containers used for cutting, dicing, and storage. Bacteriophages possess attributes to control foodborne pathogens in a novel manner by infecting bacterial cells, lysing the cells, and liberating more phage, which in turn can infect the surrounding target bacterium population. Among the greatest concerns with human pathogens on fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are enteric pathogens (e.g., O157:H7 and ) that have the potential for growth prior to consumption, have low infective doses, or grow under refrigeration storage conditions (e.g., ). Future changes to enhance food safety of ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruits and vegetables require a better understanding of risks associated with microbial adaptation to stress tolerance and higher economic incentives for producers to implement better sanitation strategies.

Citation: Bhagwat A. 2006. Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, p 121-165. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

Food Safety
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
Meat and Meat Products
Foodborne Illnesses
Foodborne Microorganisms
Fruits and Vegetables
Antibacterial Agents
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Incidence of common foodborne cases in the FoodNet catchment area ( ). Data were computed based on the total number of reported cases during the period from 1996 to 1998 (1997 to 1998 for parasitic pathogens) divided by the total number of person-years under surveillance. Incidence rates for O157:H7, , and infections are expressed as cases per 100,000 persons; those for , , and parasitic-pathogen infections are expressed as cases per 1,000,000 persons.

Citation: Bhagwat A. 2006. Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, p 121-165. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Economic gains versus food safety as a result of improved packaging technology.

Citation: Bhagwat A. 2006. Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, p 121-165. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Real-time temperature profile of a typical lettuce shipment from field to consumers. (Data courtesy of S. Koseki et al., National Food Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan.)

Citation: Bhagwat A. 2006. Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, p 121-165. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Figure 4 Visual quality of fresh-cut apple slices after 7 days of storage at 5°C. Apple slices were treated with either commercial preparations containing Ca ascorbate or Produce Quality & Safety Laboratory—Solution 2 (PQSL-2) wash solution or were left untreated (A. A. Bhagwat and R. A. Saftner, unpublished results; ).

Citation: Bhagwat A. 2006. Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, p 121-165. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Bacterial dilemma: to grow or not to grow. (Adapted from references , and .)

Citation: Bhagwat A. 2006. Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, p 121-165. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Acid resistance and infective doses of common enteric pathogens. serovar Typhimurium.

Citation: Bhagwat A. 2006. Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, p 121-165. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Survival of acid challenge by serovar Typhimurium after inoculation onto various solid supports ( ). Error bars indicate standard deviation.

Citation: Bhagwat A. 2006. Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, p 121-165. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Gas production by biosensors. (A) Time course of gas production by a biosensor with repetition of temperature change between 5 and 10°C at 2-h intervals (♦) and with constant temperatures of 5°C (○) and 10°C (Δ). (B) Yeast biosensor with increasing gas production due to exposure to higher temperatures. (Reprinted from reference 90 with permission.)

Citation: Bhagwat A. 2006. Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, p 121-165. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abbott, J. A.,, R. A. Saftner,, K. C. Gross,, B. T. Vinyard,, and J. Janick. 2004. Consumer evaluation and quality measurement of fresh-cut slices of “Fuji,” “Golden Delicious,” “Gold Rush,” and “Granny Smith” apples. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 33:127140.
2. Abe, K.,, N. Saito,, F. Kasuga,, and S. Yamamoto. 2004. Prolonged incubation period of salmonellosis associated with low bacterial doses. J. Food Prot. 67:27352740.
3. Allos, B. M.,, M. R. Moore,, P. M. Griffin,, and R. V. Tauxe. 2004. Surveillance for sporadic foodborne disease in the 21st century: the FoodNet perspective. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3):S115S120.
4. Anonymous. 30 January 2001, posting date. FDA Survey of Imported Fresh Produce. [Online.] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodsur6.htm.
5. Anonymous. 2000. Fresh sliced apples: waiting to boom? Fresh Cut. 8:1822.
6. Anonymous. 2002. USDA program to collect data on produce pathogens raises questions, concerns. Produce News 2002(January 14):7.
7. Audia, J. P.,, C. C. Webb,, and J. W. Foster. 2001. Breaking through the acid barrier: an orchestrated response to proton stress by enteric bacteria. Int. J.Med. Microbiol. 291:97106.
8. Austin, J. W.,, K. L. Dodds,, B. Blanchfield,, and J. M. Farber. 1998. Growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum on inoculated fresh-cut packaged vegetables. J. Food Prot. 61:324328.
9. Babic, I.,, and A. E. Watada. 1996. Microbial populations of fresh-cut spinach leaves affected by controlled atmospheres. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 9:187193.
10. Bailey, J. S. 1998. Detection of Salmonella cells within 24 to 26 hours in poultry samples with the polymerase chain reaction BAX system. J. Food Prot. 61:792795.
11. Bari, M. L.,, M. Nakauma,, S. Todoriki,, V. K. Juneja,, K. Isshiki,, and S. Kawamoto. 2005. Effectiveness of irradiation treatments in inactivating Listeria monocytogenes on fresh vegetables at refrigeration temperature. J. Food Prot. 68:318323.
12. Basaran, N.,, A. Quintero-Ramos,, M. M. Moake,, J. J. Churey,, and R. W. Worobo. 2004. Influence of apple cultivars on inactivation of different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple cider by UV irradiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:60616065.
13. Berkelman, R.,, M. P. Doyle,, D. Schaffner,, and P. Hall. 4 August 2004, posting date. Establishing a Regulatory Limit on Listeria monocytogenes. Docket no. 2003P-0574. [Online.] American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. http://www.asm.org/ Policy/index.asp?bid=29757.
14. Bernard, R. J.,, and G. J. Jackson,. 1984. The transfer of human infections by foods, p. 365378. In S. L. Erlandsen, and E. A. Mayer (ed.), Giardia and Giardiasis. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
15. Beuchat, L. R.,, and J. H. Ryu. 1997. Produce handling and processing practices. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:459465.
16. Bhagwat, A. A. 2004. Rapid detection of Salmonella from vegetable rinse-water using real-time PCR. Food Microbiol. 21:7378.
17. Bhagwat, A. A. 2003. Simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella strains by real-time PCR. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 84:217224.
17a. Bhagwat, A. A.,, L. Chan,, R. Han,, J. Tan,, M. Kothary,, J. Jean-Gilles,, and B. D. Tall. 2005. Characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains based on acid resistance phenotypes. Infect. Immun. 73:49935003.
18. Bhagwat, A. A.,, and W. Lauer. 2004. Food borne outbreaks in raw produce can be prevented. Food Quality. 11:6263.
19. Bhagwat, A. A.,, R. A. Saftner,, and J. A. Abbott. 2004. Evaluation of wash treatments for survival of foodborne pathogens and maintenance of instrumental and sensory characteristics of fresh-cut apple slices. Food Microbiol. 21:319326.
20. Blaser, M. J.,, and L. S. Newman. 1982. A review of human salmonellosis. I. Infective dose. Rev. Infect. Dis. 4:10961106.
21. Brandt, K.,, L. P. Christensen,, J. Hansen-Moller,, S. L. Hansen,, J. Haraldsdottir,, L. Jespersen,, S. Purup,, A. Kharazmi,, V. Barkholt,, H. Froker,, and V. Kobak-Larsen. 2004. Health promoting compounds in vegetables and fruits: a systematic approach for identifying plant components with impact on human health. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 15:384393.
22. Brecht, J. K. 1995. Physiology of lightly processed fruits and vegetables. HortScience 30:1822.
23. Buchanan, R. L.,, and C. M. Deroever. 1993. Limits in assessing microbiological food safety. J. Food Prot. 56:725729.
24. Buck, J. W.,, R. R. Walcot,, and L. R. Beuchat. 21 January 2003, posting date. Recent trends in microbiological safety of fruits and vegetables. Plant Health Prog. [Online.] doi: 10.1094/PhP-2003-0121-01-RV.
25. Burnett, S. L.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2001. Human pathogens associated with raw produce and unpasteurized juices, and difficulties in decontamination. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27:104110.
26. Buta, J. G.,, H. E. Moline,, D. W. Spaulding,, and C. Y. Wang. 1999. Extending storage life of fresh-cut apples using natural products and their derivatives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:16.
27. Buzby, J. C.,, and J. F. Guthrie. 2004. The USDA Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program Evaluation. Agriculture information bulletin 792-6, October 2004. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
28. Calvin, L. 2003. Response to U.S. Foodborne Illness Outbreaks Associated with Imported Produce. Report 828. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
29. Calvin, L.,, B. Avendano,, and R. Schwentesius. 2004. The Economics of Food Safety: the Case of Green Onion and Hepatitis A Outbreaks. Agricultural economic report number 305. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
30. Campbell, J. V.,, J. Mohle-Boetani,, R. Reporter,, S. Abbott,, J. Farrar,, M. Brandl,, R. Mandrell,, and S. B. Werner. 2001. An outbreak of Salmonella serotype Thompson associated with fresh cilantro. J. Infect. Dis. 183:984987.
31. Castanie-Cornet, M. P.,, T. A. Penfound,, D. Smith,, J. F. Elliott,, and J. W. Foster. 1999. Control of acid resistance in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 181:35253535.
32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1991. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella poona infections—United States and Canada. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 40:549552.
33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food—selected sites, United States, 2003. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53:338343.
34. Chen, J.,, and M. W. Griffiths. 2001. Detection of Salmonella and simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli using the magnetic capture hybridization polymerase chain reaction. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 32:711.
35. Chen, W.,, G. Martinez,, and A. Mulchandani. 2000. Molecular beacons: a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detecting Salmonella. Anal. Biochem. 280:166172.
36. Chen, Y.,, W. H. Ross,, V. N. Scott,, and D. E. Gombas. 2003. Listeria monocytogenes:low levels equals low risk. J. Food Prot. 66:570577.
37. Cheville, A. M.,, K. W. Arnold,, C. Buchrieser,, C. M. Cheng,, and C. W. Kaspar. 1996. rpoS regulation of acid, heat, and salt tolerance in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:18221824.
38. Cocolin, L.,, M. Manzano,, C. Cantoni,, and G. Comi. 1998. Use of polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis to directly detect and identify Salmonella typhimurium in food. J. Appl. Microbiol. 85:673677.
39. Code of Federal Regulations. 1 April 2000, posting date. Title 21: Food and Drugs, section 101. 95, p. 145146. [Online.] U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/get-cfr.cgi?TITLE=21&PART=101&SECTION=95&TYPE=TEXT&YEAR=2000.
40. Cooke, V. M.,, R. J. Miles,, R. G. Price,, and A. C. Richardson. 1999. A novel chromogenic ester agar medium for detection of salmonellae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:807812.
41. D'Aoust, J. Y. 1985. Infective dose of Salmonella typhimurium in cheddar cheese. Am. J. Epidemiol. 122:717719.
42. D'Aoust, J. Y.,, B. J. Aris,, P. Thisdele,, A. Durante,, N. Brisson,, D. Dragon,, G. Leachapelle,, M. Johnston,, and R. Laidley. 1975. Salmonella eastbourne outbreak associated with chocolate. Can. Inst. Food. Sci. Technol. J. 8:181184.
43. Dato, V.,, A. Weltman,, K. Waller,, M. Ruta,, A. Highbaugh-Battle,, C. Hembree,, S. Evenson,, C. Wheeler,, and T. Vogt. 2003. Hepatitis A outbreak associated with green onion at a restaurant—Monaca, Pennsylvania, 2003. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52:11551157.
44. Daum, L. T.,, W. J. Barnes,, J. C. McAvin,, M. S. Neidert,, L. A. Cooper,, W. B. Huff,, L. Gaul,, W. S. Riggins,, S. Morris,, A. Salem,, and K. L. Lohman. 2002. Real-time detection of Salmonella in suspect foods from a gastroenteritis outbreak in Kerr County, Texas. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:30503052.
45. Davidson, P. M.,, and V. K. Juneja,. 1990. Antimicrobial agents, p. 83137. In A. L. Branen,, P. M. Davidson,, and S. Salminen (ed.), Food Additives. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
46. De Medici, D.,, L. Croci,, E. Delibato,, S. Di Pasquale,, E. Filetici,, and L. Toti. 2003. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for use in combination with SYBR Green I real-time PCR to detect Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in poultry. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:34563461.
47. Donnelly, C. W., 2001. Listeria monocytogenes, p. 99132. In R. Labbe, and S. Garcia (ed.), Guide to Foodborne Pathogens. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.
48. Duffy, E. A.,, L. M. Lucia,, J. M. Kells,, A. Castillo,, S. D. Pillai,, and G. R. Acuff. 2005. Concentration of Escherichia coli and genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profiling of Salmonella isolated from irrigation water, packing shed equipment, and fresh produce in Texas. J. Food Prot. 68:7079.
49. Fan, X.,, P. M. Toivonen,, K. T. Rajkowski,, and K. J. Sokorai. 2003. Warm water treatment in combination with modified atmosphere packaging reduces undesirable effects of irradiation on the quality of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:12311236.
50. Farber, J. M.,, and P. I. Peterkin. 1991. Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen. Microbiol. Rev. 55:476511.
51. Feng, P. 1997. Impact of molecular biology on the detection of foodborne pathogens. Mol. Biotechnol. 7:267278.
52. Ferenci, T. 2003. What is driving the acquisition of mutS and rpoS polymorphisms in Escherichia coli? Trends Microbiol. 11:457461.
53. Foegeding, P. M.,, V. Hemstapat,, and F. G. Giesbrecht. 1986. Chlorine dioxide inactivation of Bacillus and Clostridium spores. J. Food Sci. 51:197201.
54. Fortin, N. Y.,, A. Mulchandani,, and W. Chen. 2001. Use of real-time polymerase chain reaction and molecular beacon for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Anal. Biochem. 289:281288.
55. Foschino, R.,, I. Nervegena,, A. Motta,, and A. Galli. 1998. Bactericidal activity of chlorine dioxide against Escherichia coli in water and on hard surfaces. J. Food Prot. 61:668672.
56. Francis, G. A.,, C. Thomas,, and D. O'Beirne. 1999. The microbiological safety of minimally processed vegetables. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 34:122.
57. Fratamico, P.,, and T. P. Strobaugh. 1998. Simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 by multiplex PCR. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21:9298.
58. Frenzen, P. D. 2004. Deaths due to unknown foodborne agents. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:15361543.
59. Frenzen, P. D.,, A. Majchrowicz,, J. C. Buzby,, and B. Imhoff. 2000. Consumer acceptance of irradiated meat and poultry products. Agric. Information Bull. 757:18.
60. Garcia, E.,, and D. M. Barrett,. 2002. Preservative treatment for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, p. 267303. In O. Lamikarira (ed.), Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables: Science, Technology and Market. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
61. Gawande, P. V.,, and A. A. Bhagwat. 2002. Inoculation onto solid surfaces protects Salmonella spp. during acid challenge: a model study using polyethersulfone membranes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:8692.
62. Gendel, S. M.,, and J. Ulaszek. 2000. Ribotype analysis of strain distribution in Listeria monocytogenes. J. Food Prot. 63:179185.
63. Gombas, D. E.,, Y. Chen,, R. S. Clavero,, and V. N. Scott. 2003. Survey of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. J. Food Prot. 66:559569.
64. Gorny, J. R. (ed.). 2001. Food Safety Guidelines for the Fresh-Cut Produce Industry, 4th ed. International Fresh-Cut Produce Association, Alexandria, Va.
65. Gorny, J. R. 2003. New opportunities for fresh-cut apples. Fresh Cut 11:1415.
66. Gorny, J. R., 1997. A summary of CA and MA requirements and recommendations for fresh-cut (minimally processed) fruits and vegetables, p. 3066. In J. R. Gorny (ed.), Proceedings of the 7th International Controlled Atmosphere Research Conference, vol. 5. University of California, Davis, Davis, Calif.
67. Goulet, V.,, H. de Valk,, O. Pierre,, F. Stainer,, J. Rocourt,, V. Vaillant,, C. Jacquet,, and J. Desenclos. 2001. Effect of prevention measures on incidence of human listeriosis, France, 1987–1997. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:983989.
68. Gunes, G.,, and C. Y. Lee. 1997. Color of minimally processed potatoes as affected by modified atmosphere packaging and anti-browning agents. J. Food Sci. 62:572575.
69. Hammack, T. S.,, R. M. Amaguana,, and W. H. Andrews. 2001. An improved method for the recovery of Salmonella serovars from orange juice using universal pre-enrichment broth. J. Food Prot. 64:659663.
70. Han, Y.,, A. M. Guentert,, R. S. Smith,, R. H. Linton,, and R. E. Nelson. 1999. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer for tanks used for aseptic juice storage. Food Microbiol. 16:5361.
71. Han, Y.,, R. H. Linton,, S. S. Nielsen,, and P. E. Nelson. 2000. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on surface-uninjured and -injured green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) by chlorine dioxide gas as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Food Microbiol. 17:643655.
72. Harp, E.,, and S. E. Gilliland. 2003. Evaluation of a select strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis as a biological control agent for pathogens on fresh-cut vegetables stored at 7°C. J. Food Prot. 66:10131018.
73. Harris, L. J.,, J. N. Farber,, L. R. Beuchat,, M. E. Parish,, T. V. Suslow,, E. H. Garret,, and F. F. Busta. 2003. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 2, p. 7889. Institute of Food Technology, Chicago, Ill.
74. Hedberg, C. W.,, J. A. Korlath,, J. Y. D'Aoust,, K. E. White,, W. L. Schell,, M. R. Miller,, D. N. Cameron,, K. L. MacDonald,, and M. T. Osterholm. 1992. A multistate outbreak of Salmonella javiana and Salmonella oranienburg infections due to consumption of contaminated cheese. JAMA 268:32033240.
75. Higuchi, R.,, C. Fockler,, G. Dollinger,, and R. Watson. 1993. Kinetic PCR analysis: real-time monitoring of DNA amplification reactions. Bio/Technology 11:10261030.
76. Hilborn, E. D.,, J. H. Mermin,, P. A. Mshar,, J. L. Hadler,, A. Voetsch,, C. Wojtkunski,, M. Swartz,, R. Mshar,, M. A. Lambert-Fair,, J. A. Farrar,, M. K. Glynn,, and L. Slutsker. 1999. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of mesclun lettuce. Arch. Intern. Med. 159:17581764.
77. Hilgren, J. D.,, and J. A. Salverda. 2000. Antimicrobial efficacy of a peroxyacetic/octanoic acid mixture in fresh-cut-vegetable process waters. J. Food Sci. 65:13761379.
78. Hill, W. E. 1996. The polymerase chain reaction: applications for the detection of food-borne pathogens. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 36:123173.
79. Hines, E. 2000. PCR-based testing: unraveling the mystery. Food Quality 7:2228.
80. Hong, J. H.,, and K. C. Gross. 2001. Maintaining quality of fresh-cut tomato slices through modified atmosphere packaging and low temperature storage. J. Food Sci. 66:960965.
81. Hudson, J. A.,, C. Billington,, G. Carey-Smith,, and G. Greening. 2005. Bacteriophages as biocontrol agents in food. J. Food Prot. 68:426437.
82. Ibanez-Ruiz, M.,, V. Robbe-Saule,, D. Hermant,, S. Labrude,, and F. Norel. 2000. Identification of RpoS (σS) -regulated genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 182:57495756.
83. Jones, T.,, B. Imhoff,, M. Samuel,, and P. Mshar. 2004. Limitations to successful investigation and reporting of foodborne outbreaks: an analysis of foodborne disease outbreaks in FoodNet catchment areas, 1998–1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3):S297S302.
84. Joseph, B.,, S. K. Otta,, I. Karunasagar,, and I. Karunasagar. 2001. Biofilm formation by Salmonella spp. on food contact surfaces and their sensitivity to sanitizers. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 64:367372.
85. Kader, A. A.,, D. Zagory,, and E. L. Kerbel. 1989. Modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 28:130.
86. Karaibrahimoglu, Y.,, X. Fan,, G. M. Sapers,, and K. Sokorai. 2004. Effect of pH on the survival of Listeria innocua in calcium ascorbate solutions and on quality of fresh-cut apples. J. Food Prot. 67:751757.
87. Kim, J. G.,, Y. Luo,, R. A. Saftner,, and K. C. Gross. 2005. Delayed modified atmosphere packaging of fresh-cut romaine lettuce: effects on quality maintenance and shelf-life. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 130:116123.
88. King, T.,, A. Ishihama,, A. Kori,, and T. Ferenci. 2004. A regulatory trade-off as a source of strain variation in the species Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 186:56145620.
89. Klein, P. G.,, and V. K. Juneja. 1997. Sensitive detection of viable Listeria monocytogenes by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:44414448.
90. Kogure, H.,, S. Kawasaki,, K. Nakajima,, N. Sakai,, K. Futase,, Y. Inatsu,, M. L. Bari,, K. Isshiki,, and S. Kawamoto. 2005. Development of a novel microbial sensor with Baker's yeast cells for monitoring temperature control during cold food chain. J. Food Prot. 68:182186.
91. Koseki, S.,, and K. Itoh. 2002. Effect of nitrogen gas packaging on the quality and microbial growth of fresh-cut vegetables under low temperatures. J. Food Prot. 65:326332.
92. Kumar, V.,, D. J. Mills,, J. D. Anderson,, and A. K. Mattoo. 2004. An alternative agriculture system is defined by a distinct expression profile of select gene transcripts and proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1053510540.
93. Kusumaningrum, H. D.,, E. D. van Asselt,, R. R. Beumer,, and M. H. Zwietering. 2004. A quantitative analysis of cross-contamination of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. via domestic kitchen surfaces. J. Food Prot. 67:18921903.
94. LeBlanc, D. I.,, R. Stark,, B. MacNeil,, B. Goguen,, and C. Beaulieu. 1996. New Developments in Refrigeration and Food Safety and Quality, p. 4251. International Institute of Refrigeration, Paris, France.
95. Lee, S.-Y.,, M. Costello,, and D.-H. Kang. 2004. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer of lettuce leaves. J. Food Prot. 67:13711376.
96. Leistner, L.,, and G. Gorris. 1995. Food preservation by hurdle technology. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 6:4146.
97. Leverentz, B.,, W. S. Conway,, M. J. Camp,, W. J. Janisiewicz,, T. Abuladze,, M. Yang,, R. A. Saftner,, and A. Sulakvelidze. 2003. Biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut produce by treatment with lytic bacteriophages and a bacteriocin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:45194526.
98. Leverentz, B.,, W. S. Conway,, W. J. Janisiewicz,, and M. J. Camp. 2004. Optimizing concentration and timing of a phage spray application to reduce Listeria monocytogenes on honeydew melon tissue. J. Food Prot. 67:16821686.
99. Li, C.-M.,, S. S. Moon,, M. P. Doyle,, and K. H. McWatters. 2002. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes on lettuce by hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid and by hydrogen peroxide with mild heat. J. Food Prot. 65:12151220.
100. Lao, C.-H.,, and P. H. Cooke. 2001. Response to trisodium phosphate treatment of Salmonella Chester attached to fresh-cut green pepper slices. Can. J. Microbiol. 47:2532.
101. Liao, C. H.,, and G. M. Sapers. 2000. Attachment and growth of Salmonella chester on apple fruits and in vivo response of attached bacteria to sanitizer treatments. J. Food Prot. 63:876883.
102. Liming, S. H.,, and A. A. Bhagwat. 2004. Application of a molecular beacon–real-time PCR technology to detect Salmonella species contaminating fruits and vegetables. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 95:177187.
103. Liming, S. H.,, Y. Zhang,, J. Meng,, and A. A. Bhagwat. 2004. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce using molecular beacon–real-time PCR technology. J. Food Sci. 69:240245.
104. Lin, B. H. 2004. Fruits and Vegetables Consumption: Looking Ahead to 2010. Report 792-7. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
105. Lin, B. H.,, J. Reed,, and G. Lucier. 2004. U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Who, What, Where, and How Much? Report 792-2. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
106. Lin, J.,, M. P. Smith,, K. C. Chapin,, H. S. Baik,, G. N. Bennett,, and J. W. Foster. 1996. Mechanisms of acid resistance in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:30943100.
107. Loewe, L.,, V. Textor,, and S. Scherer. 2003. High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli. Science 302:15581560.
108. Lombardo, M.,, I. Aponyi,, and S. M. Rosenberg. 2004. General stress response regulator RpoS in adaptive mutation and amplification in Escherichia coli. Genetics 166:669680.
109. Luo, Y.,, J. L. McEvoy,, M. R. Wachtel,, J. G. Kim,, and Y. Huang. 2004. Package atmosphere affects postharvest biology and quality of fresh-cut cilantro leaves. HortScience 39:567570.
110. Marklinder, I. M.,, M. Lindbald,, L. M. Eriksson,, A. M. Finnson,, and R. Lindqvist. 2004. Home storage temperatures and consumer handling of refrigerated foods in Sweden. J. Food Prot. 67:25702577.
111. McCullough, N. B.,, and C. W. Eisele. 1951. Experimental human salmonellosis. I. Pathogenicity of strains of Salmonella meleagridis and Salmonella anatum obtained from spray-dried whole egg. J. Infect. Dis. 88:278289.
112. McWatters, L. H.,, M. S. Chinnan,, S. L. Walker,, M. P. Doyle,, and C. M. Lin. 2002. Consumer acceptance of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce treated with 2% hydrogen peroxide and mild heat. J. Food Prot. 65:12211226.
113. Mohle-Boetani, J. C.,, R. Reporter,, S. B. Werner,, S. Abbott,, J. Farrar,, S. H. Waterman,, and D. J. Vugia. 1999. An outbreak of Salmonella serogroup saphra due to cantaloupes from Mexico. J. Infect. Dis. 180:13611364.
114. Morin, N. J.,, Z. Gong,, and X. F. Li. 2004. Reverse transcription-multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae O1, and Salmonella Typhi. Clin. Chem. 50:20372044.
115. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. 1999. Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on fresh produce. Food Control 10:117143.
116. Nguyen-the, C.,, and F. Carlin. 1994. The microbiology of minimally processed fresh fruit and vegetables. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 34:371401.
117. Notley-McRobb, L.,, T. King,, and T. Ferenci. 2002. rpoS mutations and loss of general stress resistance in Escherichia coli populations as a consequence of conflict between competing stress responses. J. Bacteriol. 184:806811.
118. Nwachuka, N.,, and C. P. Gerba. 2004. Microbial risk assessment: don't forget the children. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 7:206209.
119. Nystrom, T. 2004. Stationary-phase physiology. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 58:161181.
120. Oscar, T. P. 1998. Identification and characterization of Salmonella isolates by automated ribotyping. J. Food Prot. 61:519524.
121. Parnell, T. L.,, L. J. Harris,, and T. V. Suslow. Reducing Salmonella on cantaloupes and honeydew melons using wash practices applicable to postharvest handling, foodservice, and consumer preparation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 99:5970.
122. Public Health Laboratory Systems. 2001. Salmonella Newport infection in England associated with the consumption of ready to eat salad. Eurosurveillance Wkly. 2001 (28 June):010628.
123. Rayner, J.,, R. Veeh,, and J. Flood. 2004. Prevalence of microbial biofilms on selected fresh produce and household surfaces. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 95:2939.
124. Redmond, E. C.,, and C. J. Griffith. 2003. Consumer food handling in the home: a review of food safety studies. J. Food Prot. 66:130161.
125. Richards, G. M.,, J. W. Buck,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2004. Survey of yeasts for antagonistic activity against Salmonella Poona in cantaloupe juice and wounds in rinds co-infected with phytopathogenic molds. J. Food Prot. 67:21322142.
126. Rijpens, N.,, L. Herman,, F. Vereecken,, G. Jannes,, J. D. Smedt,, and L. D. Zutter. 1999. Rapid detection of stressed Salmonella spp. in dairy and egg products using immunomagnetic separation and PCR. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 46:3744.
127. Saltveit, M. E. 2003. Effect of 1–methylcyclopropane on phenylpropanoid metabolism, the accumulation of phenolic compounds, and browning of whole and fresh-cut “iceberg” lettuce. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 34:7580.
128. Sapers, G. M., 2003. Washing and sanitizing raw materials for minimally processed fruits and vegetable products, p. 221253. In J. S. Novak,, G. M. Sapers,, and V. K. Juneja (ed.), Microbial Safety of Minimally Processed Foods. CRC Press, Washington, D.C.
129. Sapers, G. M.,, L. Garzarella,, and V. Pilizota. 1990. Application of browning inhibitors to cut apple and potato by vacuum and pressure infiltration. J. Food Sci. 55:10491053.
130. Sapers, G. M.,, R. L. Miller,, V. Pilizota,, and A. M. Mattrazzo. 2001. Antimicrobial treatments for minimally processed cantaloupe melon. J. Food Sci. 66:345349.
131. Sewell, A. M.,, and J. M. Farber. 2001. Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce. J. Food Prot. 64:18631877.
132. Sharma, M.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2004. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to commercially available alkaline cleaners and subsequent resistance to heat and sanitizers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:17951803.
133. Silvestro, L.,, M. Caputo,, S. Blancato,, L. Decastelli,, A. Fioravanti,, R. Tozzoli,, S. Morabito,, and A. Caprioli. 2004. Asymptomatic carriage of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in farm workers in Northern Italy. Epidemiol. Infect. 132:915919.
134. Smith, A. B.,, J. Song,, and A. C. Cameron. 1998. Modified atmosphere packaged cut iceberg: effect of temperature and O2 partial pressure on respiration and quality. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:45564562.
135. 135. Soliva-Fortuny, R. C.,, and O. Martin-Belloso. 2003. New advances in extending the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits: a review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 14:341353.
136. Solomon, H. M.,, D. A. Kautter,, T. Lilly,, and E. J. Rhodehame. 1990. Outgrowth of Clostridium botulinum in shredded cabbage at room temperature under modified atmosphere. J. Food Prot. 53:831833.
137. Steele, M.,, and J. Odumeru. 2004. Irrigation water as source of foodborne pathogens on fruits and vegetables. J. Food Prot. 67:28392849.
138. Sugiyama, J., 2004. “SEICA” accountability system for fruits and vegetables, p. 101103. In J. P. Cherry, and A. E. Pavlath (ed.), US-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources. USDA Agricultural Research Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.
139. Suslow, T. V.,, M. P. Oria,, L. R. Beuchat,, E. H. Garret,, M. E. Parish,, L. J. Harris,, J. N. Farber,, and F. F. Busta. 2003. Production practices as risk factors in microbial food safety of fresh and fresh-cut produce. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 2(Suppl.):3872.
140. Thomas, L. V.,, M. R. Clarkson,, and J. Delves-Broughton,. 2000. Nisin, p. 463524. In A. S. Naidu (ed.), Natural Food Antimicrobial Systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
141. Trichopoulou, A.,, A. Naska,, A. Antoniou,, S. Friel,, K. Trygg,, and A. Turrini. 2003. Vegetables and fruits: the evidence in their favor and the public health perspective. Int. J. Vitamin Nutr. Res. 73:6369.
142. Tyagi, S.,, and F. R. Kramer. 1996. Molecular beacon: probes that fluoresce upon hybridization. Nat. Biotechnol. 14:303308.
143. Ukuku, D. O. 2004. Effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment on microbial quality and appearance of whole and fresh-cut melons contaminated with Salmonella spp. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 95:137146.
144. Ukuku, D. O.,, and W. F. Fett. 2004. Effect of nisin in combination with EDTA, sodium lactate, and potassium sorbate for reducing Salmonella on whole and fresh-cut cantaloupe. J. Food Prot. 67:21432150.
145. Ukuku, D. O.,, V. Pilizota,, and G. M. Sapers. 2004. Effect of hot water and hydrogen peroxide treatments on survival of Salmonella and microbial quality of whole and fresh-cut cantaloupe. J. Food Prot. 67:432437.
146. USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. 1998. Shipping Point and Market Inspections Instructions for Fresh-Cut Produce. Fruits and Vegetable Division, Fresh Products Branch, U.S. Department of Agriculture, North Highlands, Calif.
147. USDA Agricultureal Research Service. 30 August 2005, posting date. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Release 17. [Online.] USDA Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Md. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
148. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2002. “Qualified Through Verification” (QTV) Program for the Fresh-Cut Produce Industry. Agricultural Marketing Service file code 151-B-4. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
149. van't Veer, P.,, M. C. J. F. Jansen,, M. Klerk,, and F. J. Kok. 2000. Fruits and vegetables in prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Public Health Nutr. 3:103107.
150. Venkitanarayanan, K. S.,, C. M. Lin,, H. Bailey,, and M. P. Doyle. 2002. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes on apples, oranges, and tomatoes by lactic acid with hydrogen peroxide. J. Food Prot. 65:100105.
151. Wachtel, M. R.,, and A. O. Charkowski. 2002. Cross-contamination of lettuce with Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Food Prot. 65:465470.
152. Wachtel, M. R.,, L. C. Whitehead,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2002. Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with preharvest leaf lettuce upon exposure to contaminated irrigation water. J. Food Prot. 65:1825.
153. Wang, C. Y. 1998. Methyl jasmonate inhibits postharvest sprouting and improves storage quality of radishes. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 14:179183.
154. Waterman, S. R.,, and P. L. C. Small. 1998. Acid-sensitive enteric pathogens are protected from killing under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2.5 when they are inoculated onto certain solid food sources. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:38823886.
155. Waterman, S. R.,, and P. L. C. Small. 1996. Characterization of the acid resistance phenotype and rpoS alleles of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 64:28082811.
156. Weagant, S. D.,, J. A. Jagow,, K. C. Jinneman,, C. J. Omiecinski,, C. A. Kaysner,, and W. E. Hill. 1999. Development of digoxigenin-labeled PCR amplicon probes for use in detection and identification of enteropathogenic Yersinia and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from foods. J. Food Prot. 62:438443.
157. Wilcock, A.,, M. Pun,, J. Khanona,, and M. Aung. 2004. Consumer attitudes, knowledge and behaviour: a review of food safety issues. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 15:5666.
158. Woteki, C. E.,, and B. D. Kineman. 2003. Challenges and approaches to reducing food-borne illness. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 23:315344.
159. Wright, M. E.,, S. T. Mayne,, C. A. Swanson,, R. Sinha,, and M. C. R. Alavanja. 2003. Dietary carotenoids, vegetables, and lung cancer risk in women: the Missouri women's health study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 14:8596.
160. Yucan, J. T. C., 2003. Modified atmosphere packaging for shelf-life extension, p. 205219. In J. S. Novak,, G. M. Sapers,, and V. K. Juneja (ed.), Microbial Safety of Minimally Processed Foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
161. Zhao, C.,, B. Ge,, J. D. Villena,, R. Sudler,, E. Yeh,, S. Zhao,, D. G. White,, D. Wagner,, and J. Meng. 2001. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella serovars in retail chicken, turkey, pork, and beef from the greater Washington, D.C., area. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:54315436.
162. Zhuang, H.,, M. M. Barth,, and T. R. Hankinson,. 2003. Microbial safety, quality, and sensory aspects of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, p. 255278. In J. S. Novak,, G. M. Sapers,, and V. K. Juneja (ed.), Microbial Safety of Minimally Processed Foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Glumatic aicd contents of various fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

Citation: Bhagwat A. 2006. Microbiological Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce: Where Are We Now?, p 121-165. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch5

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error