1887

Chapter 6 : Seed Sprouts: the State of Microbiological Safety

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Seed Sprouts: the State of Microbiological Safety, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817527/9781555813574_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817527/9781555813574_Chap06-2.gif

Abstract:

In the past decade, consumption of raw or lightly cooked seed sprouts contaminated with or O157:H7 or O157:NM has been responsible for at least 27 outbreaks of infection in the United States, resulting in over 1,600 reported cases of foodborne illness. In this chapter, the authors discuss the native microflora found on sprout seeds and sprouts, the most promising antimicrobial interventions for sanitizing seeds and sprouts, and the detection technologies that have been studied. They also provide insights on the unique challenges and opportunities that seed sprouts afford from a food safety perspective and discuss strategies for reducing the risk of future sprout-related outbreaks of foodborne illness. Through the use of traditional bacteriological methods, sprout seeds and seed sprouts are known to harbor high populations of a variety of indigenous microbes. There is a lack of studies using modern methods of microbial ecology to investigate the native microflora on sprout seeds and sprouts. According to the authors, cultivation-independent molecular techniques have not yet been applied for identifying microorganisms associated with seed sprouts. A composite seed sample is sprouted, and pathogen testing of the spent irrigation water by Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended procedures is performed. This seed-screening procedure does not preclude the necessity of testing each production batch according to the FDA guidance.

Citation: Fett W, Fu T, Tortorello M. 2006. Seed Sprouts: the State of Microbiological Safety, p 167-219. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch6

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Ecology
0.42350018
Food Microbiology
0.4232544
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
0.4208731
0.42350018
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Scanning electron micrograph of native yeast and rod-shaped bacteria on the surface of a mung bean sprout cotyledon.

Citation: Fett W, Fu T, Tortorello M. 2006. Seed Sprouts: the State of Microbiological Safety, p 167-219. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Scanning electron micrograph of a native biofilm on the surface of a mung bean sprout cotyledon.

Citation: Fett W, Fu T, Tortorello M. 2006. Seed Sprouts: the State of Microbiological Safety, p 167-219. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817527.chap06
1. Abbo, S.,, and D. L. Baggesen. 1997. Growth of Salmonella Newport in naturally contaminated alfalfa sprouts and estimation of infectious dose in a Danish Salmonella Newport outbreak due to alfalfa sprouts. Salmonella Salmonellosis 97:425426.
2. Andrews, W. H.,, C. R. Wilson,, P. L. Poelma,, A. Romero,, and P. B. Mislivec. 1979. Bacteriological survey of sixty health foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37:559566.
3. Andrews, W. H.,, P. B. Mislivec,, C. R. Wilson,, V. R. Bruce,, P. L. Poelma,, R. Gibson,, M. W. Trucksess,, and K. Young. 1982. Microbial hazards associated with bean sprouting. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 65:241248.
4. Ariefdjohan, M. W.,, P. E. Nelson,, R. K. Singh,, A. K. Bhunia,, V. M. Balasubramaniam,, and N. Singh. 2004. Efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure treatment in reducing Escherichia coli O157 and Listeria monocytogenes in alfalfa seeds. J. Food Sci. 69:M117M120.
5. Barak, J. D.,, L. C. Whitehand,, and A. O. Charkowski. 2002. Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli O157:H7 to alfalfa sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:47584763.
6. Bari, M. L.,, E. Nazuka,, Y. Sabina,, S. Todoriki,, and K. Isshiki. 2003. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. J. Food Prot. 66:767774.
7. Bari, M. L.,, M. I. Al-Haq,, T. Kawasaki,, M. Nakauma,, S. Todoriki,, S. Kawamoto,, and K. Isshiki. 2004. Irradiation to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on ready-to eat radish and mung bean sprouts. J. Food Prot. 67:22632268.
8. Becker, B.,, and W. H. Holzapfel. 1997. Microbiological risk of prepacked sprouts and measures to reduce total counts. Arch. Lebensmittelhygiene 48:8184.
9. Bennik, M. H. J.,, W. Vorstman,, E. J. Smid,, and L. G. M. Gorris. 1998. The influence of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the growth of prevalent Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species isolated from fresh and controlled-atmosphere-stored vegetables. Food Microbiol. 15:459469.
10. Beuchat, L. R. 1997. Comparison of chemical treatments to kill Salmonella on alfalfa seeds destined for sprout production. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 34:329333.
11. Beuchat, L. R.,, and A. J. Scouten. 2002. Combined effects of water activity, temperature and chemical treatments on the survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. J. Appl. Microbiol. 92:382395.
12. Beuchat, L. R.,, T. E. Ward,, and C. A. Pettigrew. 2001. Comparison of chlorine and a prototype produce wash product for effectiveness in killing Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. J. Food Prot. 64:152158.
13. Breidt, F.,, and H. P. Fleming. 1997. Using lactic acid bacteria to improve the safety of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Food Technol. 51:4449.
14. Breuer, T.,, D. H. Benkel,, R. L. Shapiro,, W. N. Hall,, M. M. Winnett,, M. J. Linn,, J. Neimann,, T. J. Barrett,, S. Dietrich,, F. P. Downes,, D. M. Toney,, J. L. Pearson,, H. Rolka,, L. Slutsker,, P. M. Griffin, and the Investigation Team. 2001. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:977982.
15. Brooks, J. T.,, S. Y. Rowe,, P. Shillam,, D. M. Heltzel,, S. B. Hunter,, L. Slutsker,, R. M. Hoekstra,, and S. P. Luby. 2001. Salmonella Typhimurium infections transmitted by chlorine-pretreated clover sprout seeds. Am. J. Epidemiol. 154:10201028.
16. Buck, J. W.,, R. R. Walcott,, and L. R. Beuchat. 21 January 2003, posting date. Recent trends in microbiological safety of fruits and vegetables. Plant Health Prog. [Online.] doi:10.1094/PhP-2003-0121-01-RV.
17. Burnett, A. B.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2001. Comparison of sample preparation methods for recovering Salmonella from raw fruits, vegetables, and herbs. J. Food Prot. 64:14591465.
18. Cai, Y.,, L.-K. Ng,, and J. M. Farber. 1997. Isolation and characterization of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis from bean-sprouts. J. Appl. Microbiol. 83:499507.
19. Callister, S. M.,, and W. A. Agger. 1987. Enumeration and characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas caviae isolated from grocery store produce. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:249253.
20. Campbell, R. C. 2003. Biological Control of Microbial Plant Pathogens. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
21. Cao, G.,, E. Sofic,, and R. L. Prior. 1996. Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:34263431.
22. Castro-Rosas, J.,, and E. F. Escartin. 1999. Incidence and germicide sensitivity of Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae O1 in alfalfa sprouts. J. Food Safety 19:137146.
23. Castro-Rosas, J.,, and E. F. Escartin. 2000. Survival and growth of Vibrio cholerae O1, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in alfalfa sprouts. J. Food Sci. 65:162165.
24. Charkowski, A. O.,, C. Z. Sarreal,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2001. Wrinkled alfalfa seeds harbor more aerobic bacteria and are more difficult to sanitize than smooth seeds. J. Food Prot. 64:12921298.
25. Charkowski, A. O.,, J. D. Barak,, C. Z. Sarreal,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2002. Differences in growth of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:31143120.
26. Cooley, M. B.,, W. G. Miller,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2003. Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana with Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and competition by Enterobacter asburiae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:49154926.
27. Danielsson-Tham, M.-L.,, and K. Holm. 1983. Bacteriological quality of sprouts and salads containing sprouts. Var Föda 35:1119.
28. Delaquis, P. J.,, P. L. Sholberg,, and K. Stanich. 1999. Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid. J. Food Prot. 62:953957.
29. Dong, Y.,, A. L. Iniguez,, B. M. M. Ahmer,, and E. W. Triplett. 2003. Kinetics and strain specificity of rhizosphere and endophytic colonization by enteric bacteria on seedlings of Medicago sativa and Medicago trunculata. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:17831790.
30. Donlan, R. M.,, and J. W. Costerton. 2002. Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15:167193.
31. Dychdala, G. R., 1991. Chlorine and chlorine compounds, p. 131151. In S. S. Block (ed.), Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 4th ed. Lea & Febinger, Philadelphia, Pa.
32. Enomoto, K. 2004. Use of bean sprout Enterobacteriaceae isolates as biological control agents of Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Food Sci. 69:FMS17FMS22.
33. Enomoto, K.,, T. Takizawa,, N. Ishikawa,, and T. Suzuki. 2002. Hot-water treatments for disinfecting alfalfa seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 8:247251.
34. Environmental Protection Agency. 1998. 40 CFR parts 9, 141, and 142, national primary drinking water regulations: disinfectants and disinfection byproducts, final rule. Fed. Regist. 63:6939069476.
35. Fahey, J. W.,, Y. Zhang,, and P. Talalay. 1997. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:1036710372.
36. Fan, X.,, and D. W. Thayer. 2001. Quality of irradiated alfalfa sprouts. J. Food Prot. 64:15741578.
37. Fan, X.,, D. W. Thayer,, and K. J. B. Sokorai. 2004. Changes in growth and antioxidant status of alfalfa sprouts during sprouting as affected by gamma irradiation of seeds. J. Food Prot. 67:561566.
38. Fett, W. F. 2000. Naturally occurring biofilms on alfalfa and other types of sprouts. J. Food Prot. 63:625632.
39. Fett, W. F. 2002. Reduction of the native microflora on alfalfa sprouts during propagation by addition of antimicrobial compounds to the irrigation water. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 72:1318.
40. Fett, W. F. 2002. Factors affecting the efficacy of chlorine against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on alfalfa seed. Food Microbiol. 19:135149.
41. Fett, W.F. 2002. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on laboratory-inoculated mung bean seed by chlorine treatment. J. Food Prot. 65:848852.
42. Fett, W. F., 2005. Interventions to ensure the microbiological safety of sprouts, p. 187209. In G. M. Sapers,, J. R. Gorny,, and A. E. Yousef (ed.), Microbiology of Fruits and Vegetables , in press. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
43. Fett, W. F.,, and P. H. Cooke. 2003. Scanning electron microscopy of native biofilms on mung bean sprouts. Can. J. Microbiol. 49:4550.
44. Fett, W. F.,, and P. H. Cooke. 2003. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa seed with commercial citrus-related products. J. Food Prot. 66:11581165.
45. Fett, W. F.,, and P. H. Cooke. 2005. A survey of native microbial aggregates on alfalfa, clover, and mung bean sprout cotyledons for thickness as determined by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Food Microbiol. 22:253259.
46. Food and Drug Administration. 1989. Seeds for Sprouting Prior to Food Use, i.e., Dried Mung Beans, Alfalfa Seeds, etc. Compliance policy guide 7120.28, section 555.750. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.fda.gov/ora/ compliance_ref/cpg/cpgfod/cpg555-750.html.
47. Food and Drug Administration. 1998. Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th ed., revision A. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Md.
48. Food and Drug Administration. 26 October 1998, posting date. Guidance for Industry: Guide To Minimize Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/_dms/ prodguid.html.
49. Food and Drug Administration. 1999. Guidance for industry: reducing microbial food safety hazards for sprouted seeds and guidance for industry: sampling and microbial testing of spent irrigation water during sprout production. Fed. Regist. 64:5789357902.
50. Food and Drug Administration. 2000. Irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food. Fed. Regist. 65:6460564607.
51. Food and Drug Administration. 7 April 2004, revision date. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D. C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/_dms/fc01-1.html.
52. Food and Drug Administration. 2 October 2002, posting date. Consumers Advised of Risks Associated with Eating Raw and Lightly Cooked Sprouts. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/_lrd/tpsprout.html.
53. Food and Drug Administration. 19 February 2003, posting date. Recalls and Field Corrections: Foods—Class I. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2003/ENF00783.html.
54. Food and Drug Administration. 19 August 2004, posting date. Note to Firms That Grow, Condition, Store, or Distribute Seed for Sprouting and to Firms That Produce, Pack, or Ship Fresh Sprouts. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/sproltr.html.
55. Food and Drug Administration. October 2004, posting date. Produce Safety from Production to Consumption: 2004 Action Plan To Minimize Foodborne Illness Associated with Fresh Produce Consumption. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/_dms/prodpla2.html.
56. Food and Drug Administration. 23 June 2004, posting date. 21 CFR Part 110—Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Human Food. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/ waisidx_04/21cfr110_04.html.
57. Food and Drug Administration. 2004. Establishment and maintenance of records under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Fed. Regist. 69:7156171655.
58. Food and Drug Administration. December 2004, posting date. Growing Sprouts in Retail Food Establishments. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.cfsan.gov/~dms/sprouret.html.
59. Food and Drug Administration and Food and Drug Branch, California Department of Health Services. 2003. Safer Processing of Sprouts. [Video.] Food and Drug Branch, California Department of Health Services, Sacramento, Calif.
60. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 23 December 2003, revision date. Quantitative Assessment of Relative Risk to Public Health from Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among Selected Categories of Ready-to-Eat Foods. [Online.] Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/lmr2-1.html.
61. Forsberg, G. 2004. Control of cereal seed-borne diseases by hot humid air seed treatment. Ph.D. thesis. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
62. Fratamico, P. M.,, and L. K. Bagi. 2001. Comparison of an immunochromatographic method and the Taqman E. coli O157:H7 assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in alfalfa sprout spent irrigation water and in sprouts after blanching. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27:129134.
63. Fratamico, P. M.,, L. K. Bagi,, and T. A. Pepe. 2000. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in foods and bovine feces. J. Food Prot. 63:10321037.
64. Fu, T.,, D. Stewart,, K. Reineke,, J. Ulaszek,, J. Schlesser,, and M. Tortorello. 2001. Use of spent irrigation water for microbiological analysis of alfalfa sprouts. J. Food Prot. 64:802806.
65. Fu, T.-J.,, O. M. VanPelt,, and K. F. Reineke. 2003. Growth of Salmonella during sprouting of naturally contaminated alfalfa seeds as affected by sprouting conditions. J. Food Prot. 66(Suppl. A):152, paper no. p268.
66. Fujisawa, T.,, S. Sata,, K. Aikawa,, T. Takahashi,, S. Yamai,, and T. Shimada. 2000. Modification of sorbitol MacConkey medium containing cefixime and tellurite for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from radish sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:31173118.
67. Gagne, S.,, C. Richard,, H. Rousseau,, and H. Antoun. 1987. Xylem-residing bacteria in alfalfa roots. Can. J. Microbiol. 33:9961000.
68. Gandhi, M.,, S. Golding,, S. Yaron,, and K. R. Matthews. 2001. Use of green fluorescent protein expressing Salmonella Stanley to investigate survival, spatial location, and control on alfalfa sprouts. J. Food Prot. 64:18911898.
69. Gandhi, M.,, and K. R. Matthews. 2003. Efficacy of chlorine and calcinated calcium treatment of alfalfa seeds and sprouts to eliminate Salmonella. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 87:301306.
70. Garland, J. L. 1997. Analysis and interpretation of community-level physiological profiles in microbial ecology. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 24:289300.
71. Gill, C. J.,, W. E. Keene,, J. C. Mohle-Boetani,, J. A. Farrar,, P. L. Waller,, C. G. Hahn,, and P. R. Cieslak. 2003. Alfalfa seed decontamination in a Salmonella outbreak. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:474479.
72. Gill, J.,, and S. T. Abedon. November. 2003, posting date. Bacteriophage ecology and plants. APSnet 2003(Nov.). [Online.] http://apsnet.org/online/feature/phages/.
73. Gorski, L.,, J. D. Palumbo,, and K. D. Nguyen. 2004. Strain-specific differences in the attachment of Listeria monocytogenes to alfalfa sprouts. J. Food Prot. 67:24882495.
74. Hallman, J.,, A. Quadt-Hallmann,, W. F. Mahaffee,, and J. W. Kloepper. 1997. Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops. Can. J. Microbiol. 43:895914.
75. Hara-Kudo, Y.,, Y. Onoue,, H. Konuma,, H. Nakagawa,, and S. Kumagai. 1999. Comparison of enrichment procedures for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from ground beef and radish sprouts. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 50:211214.
76. Hara-Kudo, Y.,, H. Konuma,, H. Nakagawa,, and S. Kumagai. 2000. Escherichia coli O26 detection from foods using an enrichment procedure and an immunomagnetic separation method. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 30:151154.
77. Hara-Kudo, Y.,, M. Ikedo,, H. Kodaka,, H. Nakagawa,, K. Goto,, T. Masuda,, H. Konuma,, T. Kojima,, and S. Kumagai. 2000. Selective enrichment with a resuscitation step for isolation of freeze-injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 from foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:28662872.
78. Hara-Kudo, Y.,, M. Ikedo,, O. Komatsu,, S. Yamamoto,, and S. Kumagai. 2002. Evaluation of a chromogenic agar medium for isolation of Escherichia coli O26. Food Control 13:377379.
79. Harmon, S. M.,, D. A. Kautter,, and H. M. Solomon. 1987. Bacillus cereus contamination of seeds and vegetable sprouts grown in a home sprouting kit. J. Food Prot. 50:6265.
80. Himathongkham, S.,, S. Nuanualsuwan,, H. Riemann,, and D. O. Cliver. 2001. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in artificially contaminated alfalfa seeds and mung beans by fumigation with ammonia. J. Food Prot. 64:18171819.
81. Holliday, S. L.,, A. J. Scouten,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2001. Efficacy of chemical treatments in eliminating Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on scarified and polished alfalfa seeds. J. Food Prot. 64:14891495.
82. Howard, M. B.,, and S. W. Hutcheson. 2003. Growth dynamics of Salmonella enterica strains on alfalfa sprouts and in waste seed irrigation water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:548553.
83. Hu, H.,, J. J. Churey,, and R. W. Worobo. 2004. Heat treatments to enhance the safety of mung bean seeds. J. Food Prot. 67:12571260.
84. Inami, G.,, and S. E. Moler. 1999. Detection and isolation of Salmonella from naturally contaminated alfalfa seeds following an outbreak investigation. J. Food Prot. 62:662664.
85. Inami, G. B.,, S. M. C. Lee,, R. W. Hogue,, and R. A. Brenden. 2001. Two processing methods for the isolation of Salmonella from naturally contaminated alfalfa seeds. J. Food Prot. 64:12401243.
86. International Specialty Supply. 2 August 2004, posting date. Comment on Produce Safety from Production to Consumption, Food and Drug Administration Docket No. 2004N-0258. [Online.] International Specialty Supply, Cookeville, Tenn. http://www.fda.gov/ ohrms/dockets/dailys/04/july04/071604/04N-0258–emc00001–01.pdf.
87. International Specialty Supply. 2005, posting date. Seed Sampling for Human Pathogen Testing. [Online.] International Specialty Supply, Cookeville, Tenn. http://www.sproutnet.com/sprouting_seed_ safety.htm.
88. International Sprout Growers Association. 25 October 2002, revision date. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Check List. [Online.] International Sprout Growers Association, Seattle, Wash. http://www.isga-sprouts.org/haccp.htm.
89. Itoh, Y.,, Y. Sugita-Konishi,, F. Kasuga,, M. Iwaki,, Y. Hara-Kudo,, N. Saito,, Y. Noguchi,, H. Konuma,, and S. Kumagai.1998. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 present in radish sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:15321535.
90. Jaquette, C. B.,, L. R. Beuchat,, and B. E. Mahon. 1996. Efficacy of chlorine and heat treatment in killing Salmonella stanley inoculated onto alfalfa seeds and growth and survival of the pathogen during sprouting and storage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:22122215.
91. Kent, A. D.,, and E. W. Triplett. 2002. Microbial communities and their interactions in soil and rhizosphere ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 56:211236.
92. Kim, C.,, Y.-C. Hung,, R. E. Brackett,, and C.-S. Lin. 2003. Efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water in inactivating Salmonella on alfalfa seeds and sprouts. J. Food Prot. 66:208214.
93. Kim, H.-Y.,, D. S. Lee,, and H.-D. Paik. 2004. Characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates from raw soybean sprouts. J. Food Prot. 67:10311035.
94. Kramer, M. F.,, and D. V. Lim. 2004. A rapid and automated fiber optic-based biosensor assay for the detection of Salmonella in spent irrigation water used in the sprouting of sprout seeds. J. Food Prot. 67:4652.
95. Lang, M. M.,, B. H. Ingham,, and S. C. Ingham. 2000. Efficacy of novel organic acid and hypochlorite treatments for eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 from alfalfa seeds prior to sprouting. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 58:7382.
96. Lee, S.-Y.,, K.-M. Yun,, J. Fellman,, and D.-H. Kang. 2002. Inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in mung bean sprouts by chemical treatment. J. Food Prot. 65:10881092.
97. Leverentz, B.,, W. S. Conway,, W. Janisiewicz,, and M. J. Camp. 2004. Optimizing concentration and timing of a phage spray application to reduce Listeria monocytogenes on honeydew melon tissue. J. Food Prot. 67:16821686.
98. Li, Y.,, and A. Mustapha. 2004. Simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella in apple cider and produce by a multiplex PCR. J. Food Prot. 67:2733.
99. Liao, C.-H.,, and L. M. Shollenberger. 2003. Detection of Salmonella by indicator agar media and PCR as affected by alfalfa seed homogenates and native bacteria. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 36:152156.
100. Liao, C.-H.,, and W. F. Fett. 2003. Isolation of Salmonella from alfalfa seed and demonstration of impaired growth of heat-injured cells in seed homogenates. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 82:245253.
101. Liming, S. H.,, and A. A. Bhagwat. 2004. Application of a molecular-beacon-real-time PCR technology to detect Salmonella species contaminating fruits and vegetables. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 95:177187.
102. Lin, Y.-Y.,, and T.-J. Fu. 2004. Evaluation of a fiber-optic biosensor for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh produce. J. Food Prot. 67(Suppl. A):128, paper no. p236.
103. Lindqvist, R.,, Y. Andersson,, B. de Jong,, and P. Norberg. 2000. A summary of reported foodborne disease incidents in Sweden, 1992 to 1997. J. Food Prot. 63:13151320.
104. Matos, A.,, J. L. Garland,, and W. F. Fett. 2002. Composition and physiological profiling of sprout-associated microbial communities. J. Food Prot. 65:19031908.
105. Matos, A.,, and J. Garland. 2005. The effects of community versus single strain inoculants on the biocontrol of Salmonella and microbial community dynamics in alfalfa sprouts. J. Food Prot. 68:4048.
106. Maude, R. B. 1996. Seedborne Diseases and Their Control: Principles & Practice. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
107. Mazzoni, A. M.,, R. R. Sharma,, A. Demirci,, and G. R. Ziegler. 2001. Supercritical carbon dioxide treatments to inactivate aerobic microorganisms on alfalfa seeds. J. Food Safety 21:215223.
108. McMahon, M. A. S.,, and I. G. Wilson. 2001. The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 70:155162.
109. Michino, H.,, K. Araki,, S. Minami,, S. Takaya,, N. Sakai,, M. Miyazaki,, A. Ono,, and H. Yanagawa. 1999. Massive outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in school children in Sakai City, Japan, associated with consumption of white radish sprouts. Am. J. Epidemiol. 150:787796.
110. Mølbak, L.,, T. R. Licht,, T. Kvist,, N. Kroer,, and S. R. Andersen. 2003. Plasmid transfer from Pseudomonas putida to the indigenous bacteria on alfalfa sprouts: characterization, direct quantification, and in situ location of transconjugent cells. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:55365542.
111. Monier, J.-M.,, and S. E. Lindow. 2003. Differential survival of solitary and aggregated bacterial cells promotes aggregate formation on leaf surfaces. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1597715982.
112. Montville, R.,, and D. W. Schaffner. 2004. Analysis of published sprout seed sanitization studies shows treatments are highly variable. J. Food Prot. 67:758765.
113. Montville, R.,, and D. W. Schaffner. 2005. Monte Carlo simulation of pathogen behavior during the sprout production process. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:746753.
114. Muhammad-Tahir, Z.,, and E. C. Alocilja. 2004. A disposable biosensor for pathogen detection in fresh produce samples. Biosyst. Eng. 88:145151.
115. Mundt, J. O.,, and N. F. Hinkle. 1976. Bacteria within ovules and seeds. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:694698.
116. Nandiwada, L. S.,, G. P. Schamberger,, H. W. Schafer,, and F. Diez-Gonzalez. 2004. Characterization of a novel E2–type colicin and its application to treat alfalfa seeds to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 93:267279.
117. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. 1999. Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on sprouted seeds. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 52:123153.
118. Nisbet, D. 2002. Defined competitive exclusion cultures in the prevention of enteropathogenic colonization in poultry and swine. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 81:481486.
119. Onoue, Y.,, H. Konuma,, H. Nakagawa,, Y. Hara-Kudo,, T. Fujita,, and S. Kumagai. 1999. Collaborative evaluation of detection methods for Escherichia coli O157:H7 from radish sprouts and ground beef. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 46:2736.
120. Palmai, M.,, and R. L. Buchanan. 2002. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes during germination of alfalfa sprouts. Food Microbiol. 19:195200.
121. Palmai, M.,, and R. L. Buchanan. 2002. The effect of Lactococcus lactis on the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in alfalfa sprout broth. Acta Aliment. 31:379392.
122. Pangrangi, S.,, M. W. Elwell,, R. C. Anantheswaran,, and L. F. LaBorde. 2003. Efficacy of sulfuric acid scarification and disinfection treatments in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 from alfalfa seeds prior to sprouting. J. Food Sci. 68:613618.
123. Pao, S.,, S. P. Randolph,, E. W. Westbrook,, and H. Shen. 2004. Use of bacteriophages to control Salmonella in experimentally contaminated sprout seeds. J. Food Sci. 69:M127M130.
124. Park, C. E.,, and G. W. Sanders. 1990. Source of Klebsiella pneumoniae in alfalfa and mung bean sprouts and attempts to reduce its occurrence. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 23:189192.
125. Park, C. M.,, P. J. Taormina,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2000. Efficacy of allyl isothiocyanate in killing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 56:1320.
126. Park, W. P.,, S. H. Cho,, and D. S. Lee. 1998. Effect of minimal processing operations on the quality of garlic, green onion, soybean sprouts and watercress. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77:282286.
127. Patterson, J. E.,, and M. J. Woodburn. 1980. Klebsiella and other bacteria on alfalfa and bean sprouts at the retail level. J. Food Sci. 45:492495.
128. Piernas, V.,, and J. P. Guiraud. 1997. Microbial hazards related to rice sprouting. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 32:3339.
129. Piernas, V.,, and J. P. Guiraud. 1998. Control of microbial growth on rice sprouts. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 33:297305.
130. Pönkä, A.,, Y. Andersson,, A. Siitonen,, B. de Jong,, M. Jahkola,, O. Haikala,, A. Kuhmonen,, and P. Pakkala. 1995. Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts. Lancet 345:462463.
131. Portnoy, B. L.,, J. M. Goepfert,, and S. M. Harmon. 1976. An outbreak of Bacillus cereus food poisoning resulting from contaminated vegetable sprouts. Am. J. Epidemiol. 103:589594.
132. Price, T. V. 1988. Seed sprout production for human consumption—a review. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. 21:5765.
133. Proctor, M. E.,, M. Hamacher,, M. L. Tortorello,, J. R. Archer,, and J. P. Davis. 2001. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serovar Muenchen infections associated with alfalfa sprouts grown from seeds pretreated with calcium hypochlorite. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:34613465.
134. Prokopowich, D.,, and G. Blank. 1991. Microbiological evaluation of vegetable sprouts and seeds. J. Food Prot. 54:560562.
135. Puohiniemi, R.,, T. Heiskanen,, and A. Siitonen. 1997. Molecular epidemiology of two international sprout-borne Salmonella outbreaks. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:24872491.
136. Rajkowski, K. T.,, and D. W. Thayer. 2000. Reduction of Salmonella spp. and strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by gamma radiation of inoculated sprouts. J. Food Prot. 63:871875.
137. Rajkowski, K. T.,, and D. W. Thayer. 2001. Alfalfa seed germination and yield ratio and alfalfa sprout microbial keeping quality following irradiation of seeds and sprouts. J. Food Prot. 64:19881995.
138. Rajkowski, K. T.,, G. Boyd,, and D. W. Thayer. 2003. Irradiation D-values for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella sp. on inoculated broccoli seeds and effects of irradiation on broccoli sprout keeping quality and seed viability. J. Food Microbiol. 66:760766.
139. Robertson, L. J.,, B. Gjerde,, and A. T. Campbell. 2000. Isolation of Cyclospora oocystsfrom fruits and vegetables using lectin-coated paramagnetic beads. J. Food Prot. 63:14101414.
140. Robertson, L. J.,, and B. Gjerde. 2001. Occurrence of parasites on fruits and vegetables in Norway. J. Food Prot. 64:17931798.
141. Robertson, L. J.,, and B. Gjerde. 2001. Factors affecting recovery efficiency in isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from vegetables for standard method development. J. Food Prot. 64:17991805.
142. Robertson, L. J.,, G. S. Johannessen,, B. K. Gjerde,, and S. Loncarevic. 2002. Microbiological analysis of seed sprouts in Norway. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 75:119126.
143. Sanderson, B. 2004, posting date. Seed Sampling and Testing: a Risk-Reduction Strategy for Sprouts. [Online.] International Specialty Supply, Cookeville, Tenn. http://www.sproutnet.com/Research/seed_sampling_and_testing.htm.
144. Sata, S.,, T. Fujisawa,, R. Osawa,, A. Iguchi,, S. Yamai,, and T. Shimada. 2003. An improved enrichment broth for isolation of Escherichia coli O157, with specific reference to starved cells, from radish sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:18581860.
145. Schloss, P. D.,, and J. Handelsman. 2004. Status of the microbial census. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:686691.
146. Schoeller, N. P.,, S. C. Ingham,, and B. H. Ingham. 2002. Assessment of the potential for Listeria monocytogenes survival and growth during alfalfa sprout production and use of ionizing radiation as a potential intervention treatment. J. Food Prot. 65:12591266.
147. Scouten, A. J.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2002. Combined effects of chemical, heat and ultrasound treatments to kill Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. J. Appl. Microbiol. 92:668674.
148. Sewell, A. M.,, and J. M. Farber. 2001. Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce. J. Food Prot. 64:18631877.
149. Sharma, R. R.,, and A. Demirci. 2003. Treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 86:231237.
150. Sharma, R. R.,, A. Demirci,, L. R. Beuchat,, and W. F. Fett. 2002. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on inoculated alfalfa seeds with ozonated water and heat treatment. J. Food Prot. 65:447451.
151. Sharma, R. R.,, A. Demirci,, L. R. Beuchat,, and W. F. Fett. 2002. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on inoculated alfalfa seeds with ozonated water under pressure. J. Food Safety 22:107119.
152. Shearer, A. E. H.,, C. M. Strapp,, and R. D. Joerger. 2001. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh fruits and vegetables. J. Food Prot. 64:788795.
153. Singh, N.,, R. K. Singh,, and A. K. Bhunia. 2003. Sequential disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated alfalfa seeds before and during sprouting using aqueous chlorine dioxide, ozonated water, and thyme essential oil. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 36:235243.
154. Sivapalasingam, S.,, C. R. Friedman,, L. Cohen,, and R. V. Tauxe. 2004. Fresh produce: a growing cause of outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States, 1973 through 1997. J. Food Prot. 67:23422353.
155. Skowronek, F.,, L. Simon-Sarkadi,, and W. H. Holzapfel. 1998. Hygenic status and biogenic amine content of mung bean sprouts. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. A 207:97100.
156. Sly, T.,, and E. Ross. 1982. Chinese foods: relationship between hygiene and bacterial flora. J. Food Prot. 45:115118.
157. Smith, M. 2000. Microbial testing of spent irrigation water during sprout production. Food Safety Magazine 6:8, 46.
158. Splittstoesser, D. F.,, D. T. Queale,, and B. W. Andaloro. 1983. The microbiology of vegetable sprouts during commercial production. J. Food Safety 5:7986.
159. Stan, S. D.,, and M. A. Daeschel. 2003. Reduction of Salmonella enterica on alfalfa seeds with acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water and enhanced uptake of acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water into seeds by gas exchange. J. Food Prot. 66:20172022.
160. Stewart, D. S.,, K. Reineke,, J. Ulaszek,, T. Fu,, and M. Tortorello. 2001. Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during sprouting of alfalfa seeds. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 33:9599.
161. Stewart, D. S.,, K. F. Reineke,, J. M. Ulaszek,, and M. L. Tortorello. 2001. Growth of Salmonella during sprouting of alfalfa seeds associated with salmonellosis outbreaks. J. Food Prot. 64:618622.
162. Stewart, D. S.,, K. F. Reineke,, and M. L. Tortorello. 2002. Comparison of Assurance Gold Salmonella EIA, BAX for Screening/Salmonella, and GENE-TRAK Salmonella DLP rapid assays for detection of Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts and sprout irrigation water. J. AOAC Int. 85:395403.
163. Strapp, C. M.,, A. E. H. Shearer,, and R. D. Joerger. 2003. Survey of retail alfalfa sprouts and mushrooms for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria with BAX, and evaluation of this polymerase chain reaction-based system with experimentally contaminated samples. J. Food Prot. 66:182187.
164. Suslow, T. V.,, J. Wu,, W. F. Fett,, and L. J. Harris. 2002. Detection and elimination of Salmonella Mbandaka from naturally contaminated alfalfa seed by treatment with heat or calcium hypochlorite. J. Food Prot. 65:452458.
165. Taitt, C. R.,, Y. S. Shubin,, R. Angel,, and F. S. Ligler. 2004. Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by using a rapid, array-based immunosensor. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:152158.
166. Taormina, P. J.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 1999. Comparison of chemical treatments to eliminate enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. J. Food Prot. 62:318324.
167. Taormina, P. J.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 1999. Behavior of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts during the sprouting process as influenced by treatments with various chemicals. J. Food Prot. 62:850856.
168. Taormina, P. J.,, L. R. Beuchat,, and L. Slutsker. 1999. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:626634.
169. Thayer, D. W.,, G. Boyd,, and W. F. Fett. 2003. γ-Radiation decontamination of alfalfa seeds naturally contaminated with Salmonella Mbandaka. J. Food Sci. 68:17771781.
170. Thomas, J. L.,, M. S. Palumbo,, J. A. Farrar,, T. B. Farver,, and D. O. Cliver. 2003. Industry practices and compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Guidelines among California sprout firms. J. Food Prot. 66:12531259.
171. Thomashow, L. S.,, and D. M. Weller. 1988. Role of a phenazine antibiotic from Pseudomonas fluorescens in biological control of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. J. Bacteriol. 170:34993508.
172. Thunberg, R. L.,, T. T. Tran,, R. W. Bennet,, R. N. Matthews,, and N. Belay. 2002. Microbial evaluation of selected fresh produce obtained at retail markets. J. Food Prot. 65:677682.
173. Tkalcic, S.,, T. Zhao,, B. G. Harmon,, M. P. Doyle,, C. A. Brown,, and P. Zhao. 2003. Fecal shedding of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in weaned calves following treatment with probiotic Escherichia coli. J. Food Prot. 66:11841189.
174. Tortorello, M. L.,, D. S. Stewart,, K. F. Reineke,, and J. M. Ulaszek. 2000. Detection of Salmonella in Alfalfa Sprout Spent Irrigation Water by Immunoassays. Food and Drug Administration laboratory information bulletin 4214. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.
175. Tu, S.-I.,, M. Golden,, W. F. Fett,, A. Gehring,, and P. Irwin. 2003. Rapid detection of outbreak Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella on alfalfa sprouts by immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence. J. Food Safety 23:7589.
176. USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. 3 November 2003, posting date. National Organic Program. [Online.] USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, Washington, D.C. http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/NOP/Standards/ListReg.html.
177. Viswanathan, P.,, and R. Kaur. 2001. Prevalence and growth of pathogens on salad vegetables, fruits and sprouts. Int. J. Environ. Health 203:205213.
178. Wade, W. N.,, A. J. Scouten,, K. H. McWatters,, R. L. Wick,, A. Demirci,, W. F. Fett,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2003. Efficacy of ozone in killing Listeria monocytogenes on alfalfa seeds and sprouts and effects on sensory quality of sprouts. J. Food Prot. 66:4451.
179. Warriner, K.,, S. Spaniolas,, M. Dickinson,, C. Wright,, and W. M. Waites. 2003. Internalization of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo in growing bean sprouts. J. Appl. Microbiol. 95:719727.
180. Warriner, K. S.,, F. Ibrahim,, M. Dickinson,, C. Wright,, and W. M. Waites. 2003. Internalization of human pathogens within growing salad vegetables. Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev. 20:117134.
181. Watanabe, Y.,, K. Ozasa,, J. H. Mermin,, P. M. Griffin,, K. Masuda,, S. Imashuku,, and T. Sawada. 1999. Factory outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in Japan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:424428.
182. Weagent, S. D.,, and A. J. Bound. 2000. Comparison of Detection Methods for Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Artificially Contaminated Spent Irrigation Water from Sprouted Seeds. Food and Drug Administration laboratory information bulletin 4205. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.
183. Weagant, S. D.,, and A. J. Bound. 2001. Evaluation of techniques for enrichment and isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from artificially contaminated sprouts. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 71:8792.
184. Weiss, A.,, and W. P. Hammes. 2003. Thermal seed treatment to improve the food safety status of sprouts. J. Appl. Bot. 77:152155.
185. Weissinger, W. R.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2000. Comparison of aqueous chemical treatments to eliminate Salmonella on alfalfa seeds. J. Food Prot. 63:14751482.
186. Weissinger, W. R.,, K. H. McWatters,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2001. Evaluation of volatile chemical treatments for lethality to Salmonella on alfalfa seeds and sprouts. J. Food Prot. 64:442450.
187. Wilderdyke, M. R.,, D. A. Smith,, and M. M. Brashears. 2004. Isolation, identification, and selection of lactic acid bacteria from alfalfa sprouts for competitive inhibition of foodborne pathogens. J. Food Prot. 67:947951.
188. Winthrop, K. L.,, M. S. Palumbo,, J. A. Farrar,, J. C. Mohle-Boetani,, S. Abbott,, M. E. Beatty,, G. Inami,, and S. B. Werner. 2003. Alfalfa sprouts and Salmonella Kottbus infection: a multistate outbreak following inadequate seed disinfection with heat and chlorine. J. Food Prot. 66:1317.
189. Wu, F. M.,, L. R. Beuchat,, J. G. Wells,, L. Slutsker,, M. P. Doyle,, and B. Swaminathan. 2001. Factors influencing the detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 71:9399.
190. Wu, L.,, M. H. N. Ashraf,, M. Facci,, R. Wand,, P. G. Paterson,, A. Ferrie,, and B. H. J. Juurlink. 2004. Dietary approach to attenuate oxidative stress, hypertension, and inflammation in the cardiovascular system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:70947099.
191. Wuytack, E. Y.,, A. M. J. Diels,, K. Meersseman,, and C. W. Michiels. 2003. Decontamination of seeds for sprout production by high hydrostatic pressure. J. Food Prot. 66:918923.
192. Yang, C.-H.,, D. E. Crowley,, J. Borneman,, and N. T. Keen. 2001. Microbial phyllosphere populations are more complex than previously realized. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:38893894.
193. Zhao, T.,, M. R. S. Clavero,, M. P. Doyle,, and L. R. Beuchat. 1997. Health relevance of the presence of fecal coliforms in iced tea and leaf tea. J. Food Prot. 60:215218.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Comparison of selected aqueous chemical treatments with Ca(OCl)for sanitizing alfalfa seed

Citation: Fett W, Fu T, Tortorello M. 2006. Seed Sprouts: the State of Microbiological Safety, p 167-219. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 2

Studies on the growth of bacterial human pathogens on sprouting seeds

Citation: Fett W, Fu T, Tortorello M. 2006. Seed Sprouts: the State of Microbiological Safety, p 167-219. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 3

Methods for detection of pathogens in sprouts, spent irrigation water, and seeds

Citation: Fett W, Fu T, Tortorello M. 2006. Seed Sprouts: the State of Microbiological Safety, p 167-219. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch6

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error