1887

Chapter 10 : Antimicrobial Resistance in Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Animals

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Antimicrobial Resistance in Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Animals, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817534/9781555813062_Chap10-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817534/9781555813062_Chap10-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes among isolates associated with enteric and systemic colibacillosis in minor species, cattle, pigs, and poultry, as well as bovine mastitis and uterine and urinary tract infections in companion animals. Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes among avian pathogenic recovered from diseased turkeys are similar to those reported from chickens. Fluoroquinolones are highly efficacious antimicrobial agents commonly used in human medicine. This class of drugs has also been approved for certain bacterial diseases in animals, including acute bovine respiratory disease and avian colibacillosis. Resistance to narrow-spectrum cephalosporins and tetracyclines among isolates may be due to their use for intramammary treatment for clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Treatment in grower-finisher rations was significantly associated with resistance to ampicillin, spectinomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Nineteen percent of swine isolates were also shown to possess class 1 integrons bearing gene cassettes conferring resistance primarily to trimethoprim and streptomycin. Plasmids containing the genes yielded high resistance to olaquindox as well as chloramphenicol in . Diarrhea associated with infection is responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality in goat kids and lambs. Antimicrobials are essential tools of disease management regimens in food and companion animals worldwide. The most commonly used antimicrobial drugs in food and companion animals are from five major classes: β-lactams, tetracyclines, aminogylcosides, macrolides, and sulfonamides.

Citation: White D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Animals, p 145-166. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch10

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Ecology
0.6463872
Bacterial Diseases
0.6361074
Bacterial Vaccines
0.6252971
Escherichia coli
0.44456962
0.6463872
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817534.chap10
1.Reference deleted.
2. Aalbaek, B.,, J. Rasmussen,, B. Nielsen,, and J. E. Olsen. 1991. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in Danish pigs and cattle. APMIS 99:11031110.
3. Aarestrup, F. M. 1999. Association between the consumption of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry and the occurrence of resistant bacteria among food animals. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 12:279285.
4. Aarestrup, F. M.,, and A. M. Seyfarth. 2000. Effect of intervention on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Acta Vet. Scand. Suppl. 93:99102.
5. Aden, D. P.,, N. D. Reed,, N. R. Underdahl,, and C. A. Mebus. 1969. Transferable drug resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from cases of neonatal diarrhea in calves and piglets. Appl. Microbiol. 18:961964.
6. Adetosoye, A. I.,, and M. Awad-Masalmel. 1979. Drug resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from diarrhoeic piglets. Vet. Rec. 105:306.
7. Altekruse, S. F.,, F. Elvinger,, K. Y. Lee,, L. K. Tollefson,, E. W. Pierson,, J. Eifert,, and N. Sriranganathan. 2002. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Escherichia coli strains from a turkey operation. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 221:411416.
8. Amara, A.,, Z. Ziani,, and K. Bouzoubaa. 1995. Antibioresistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated in Morocco from chickens with colibacillosis. Vet. Microbiol. 43:325330.
9. Amezcua, R.,, R. M. Friendship,, C. E. Dewey,, C. Gyles,, and J. M. Fairbrother. 2002. Presentation of postweaning Escherichia coli diarrhea in southern Ontario, prevalence of hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved, and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. Can. J. Vet. Res. 66:7378.
10. Bass, L.,, C. A. Liebert,, M. D. Lee,, A. O. Summers,, D. G. White,, S. G. Thayer,, and J. J. Maurer. 1999. Incidence and characterization of integrons, genetic elements mediating multiple-drug resistance, in avian Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:29252929.
11. Bazile-Pham-Khac, S.,, Q. C. Truong,, J. P. Lafont,, L. Gutmann,, X. Y. Zhou,, M. Osman,, and N. J. Moreau. 1996. Resistance to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli isolated from poultry. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:15041507.
12. Bean, A.,, J. Williamson,, and R. T. Cursons. 2004. Virulence genes of Escherichia coli strains isolated from mastitic milk. J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health 51:285287.
13. Bebora, L. C.,, J. O. Oundo,, and H. Yamamoto. 1994. Resistance of E. coli strains, recovered from chickens to antibiotics with particular reference to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Septrin). East Afr. Med. J. 71:624627.
14. Bertin, Y.,, C. Martin,, J. P. Girardeau,, P. Pohl,, and M. Contrepois. 1998. Association of genes encoding P fimbriae, CS31A antigen and EAST 1 toxin among CNF1-producing Escherichia coli strains from cattle with septicemia and diarrhea. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 162:235239.
15. Bischoff, K. M.,, D. G. White,, P. F. McDermott,, S. Zhao,, S. Gaines,, J. J. Maurer,, and D. J. Nisbet. 2002. Characterization of chloramphenicol resistance in beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli associated with diarrhea in neonatal swine. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:389394.
16. Blanco, J.,, D. Cid,, J. E. Blanco,, M. Blanco,, J. A. Ruiz Santa Quiteira,, and R. delaFuente. 1996. Serogroups, toxins and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhoeic lambs in Spain. Vet. Microbiol. 49:209217.
17. Blanco, J. E.,, M. Blanco,, A. Mora,, and J. Blanco. 1997. Prevalence of bacterial resistance to quinolones and other antimicrobials among avian Escherichia coli strains isolated from septicemic and healthy chickens in Spain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:21842185.
18. Blanco, J. E.,, M. Blanco,, A. Mora,, and J. Blanco. 1997. Production of toxins (enterotoxins, verotoxins, and necrotoxins) and colicins by Escherichia coli strains isolated from septicemic and healthy chickens: relationship with in vivo pathogenicity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:29532957.
19. Blanco, M.,, J. E. Blanco,, E. A. Gonzalez,, A. Mora,, W. Jansen,, T. A. Gomes,, L. F. Zerbini,, T. Yano,, A. F. de Castro,, and J. Blanco. 1997. Genes coding for enterotoxins and verotoxins in porcine Escherichia coli strains belonging to different O:K:H serotypes: relationship with toxic phenotypes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:29582963.
20. Blickwede, M.,, and S. Schwarz. 2004. Molecular analysis of florfenicol-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from pigs. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53:5864.
21. Bradford, P. A. 2001. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases in the 21st century: characterization, epidemiology, and detection of this important resistance threat. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14:933951.
22. Bradford, P. A.,, P. J. Petersen,, I. M. Fingerman,, and D. G. White. 1999. Characterization of expanded-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in E. coli isolates associated with bovine calf diarrhoeal disease. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 44:607610.
23. Brinas, L.,, M. A. Moreno,, M. Zarazaga,, C. Porrero,, Y. Saenz,, M. Garcia,, L. Dominguez,, and C. Torres. 2003. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal-sample isolates from healthy chickens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:20562058.
24. Broes, A.,, J. M. Fairbrother,, J. Mainil,, J. Harel,, and S. Lariviere. 1988. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli serotype O8:KX105 and O8:K“2829” strains isolated from piglets with diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:24022409.
25. Bryan, A.,, N. Shapir,, and M. J. Sadowsky. 2004. Frequency and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in genetically diverse, nonselected, and nonclinical Escherichia coli strains isolated from diverse human and animal sources. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:25032507.
26.Reference deleted.
27. Chaslus-Dancla, E.,, G. Gerbaud,, M. Lagorce,, J. P. Lafont,, and P. Courvalin. 1987. Persistence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid in intestinal Escherichia coli of chickens in the absence of selective pressure. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:784788.
28. Chaslus-Dancla, E.,, G. Gerbaud,, J. L. Martel,, M. Lagorce,, J. P. Lafont,, and P. Courvalin. 1987. Detection of a second mechanism of resistance to gentamicin in animal strains of Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31: 12741277.
29. Chaslus-Dancla, E.,, and J. P. Lafont. 1985. Resistance to gentamicin and apramycin in Escherichia coli from calves in France. Vet. Rec. 117:9091.
30. Chaslus-Dancla, E.,, J. L. Martel,, C. Carlier,, J. P. Lafont,, and P. Courvalin. 1986. Emergence of aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase IV in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium isolated from animals in France. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:239243.
31. Chaslus-Dancla, E.,, P. Pohl,, M. Meurisse,, M. Marin,, and J. P. Lafont. 1991. High genetic homology between plasmids of human and animal origins conferring resistance to the aminoglycosides gentamicin and apramycin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:590593.
32. Chen, Y. M.,, P. J. Wright,, C. S. Lee,, and G. F. Browning. 2003. Uropathogenic virulence factors in isolates of Escherichia coli from clinical cases of canine pyometra and feces of healthy bitches. Vet. Microbiol. 94:5769.
33. Choi, C.,, H. J. Ham,, D. Kwon,, J. Kim,, D. S. Cheon,, K. Min,, W. S. Cho,, H. K. Chung,, T. Jung,, K. Jung,, and C. Chae. 2002. Antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from pigs in Korea. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 64:7173.
34. Chopra, I.,, and M. Roberts. 2001. Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65:232260.
35. Cid, D.,, M. Blanco,, J. E. Blanco,, J. A. Ruiz Santa Quiteira,, R. dela Fuente,, and J. Blanco. 1996. Serogroups, toxins and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhoeic goat kids in Spain. Vet. Microbiol. 53:349354.
36. Cloeckaert, A.,, S. Baucheron,, G. Flaujac,, S. Schwarz,, C. Kehrenberg,, J. L. Martel,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2000. Plasmid-mediated florfenicol resistance encoded by the floR gene in Escherichia coli isolated from cattle. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:28582860.
37. Cohn, L. A.,, A. T. Gary,, W. H. Fales,, and R. W. Madsen. 2003. Trends in fluoroquinolone resistance of bacteria isolated from canine urinary tracts. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 15:338343.
38. Constable, P. D. 2004. Antimicrobial use in the treatment of calf diarrhea. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 18:817.
39. Conway, P. L., 1995. Microbial ecology of the human large intestine, p. 124. In G. R. Gibson, and G. T. Macfarlane (ed.), Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology, and Pathology. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla.
40. Cooke, C. L.,, R. S. Singer,, S. S. Jang,, and D. C. Hirsh. 2002. Enrofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from dogs with urinary tract infections. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 220:190192.
41. Cormican, M.,, V. Buckley,, G. Corbett-Feeney,, and F. Sheridan. 2001. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from turkeys and hens in Ireland. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 48:587588.
42. Corti, S.,, D. Sicher,, W. Regli,, and R. Stephan. 2003. Current data on antibiotic resistance of the most important bovine mastitis pathogens in Switzerland. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 145:571575. (In German.)
43. Costa, D.,, P. Poeta,, L. Brinas,, Y. Saenz,, J. Rodrigues,, and C. Torres. 2004. Detection of CTX-M-1 and TEM-52 β-lactamases in Escherichia coli strains from healthy pets in Portugal. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54:960961.
44. Delicato, E. R.,, B. G. de Brito,, L. C. Gaziri,, and M. C. Vidotto. 2003. Virulence-associated genes in Escherichia coli isolates from poultry with colibacillosis. Vet. Microbiol. 94:97103.
45. de Lopez, A. G.,, S. Kadis,, and E. B. Shotts, Jr. 1982. Enterotoxin production and resistance to antimicrobial agents in porcine and bovine Escherichia coli strains. Am. J. Vet. Res. 43:12861287.
46. Dho-Moulin, M.,, and J. M. Fairbrother. 1999. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Vet. Res. 30:299316.
47. Dias de Silveira, W.,, A. Ferreira,, M. Brocchi,, L. M. de Hollanda,, A. F. Pestana deCastro,, A. T. Yamada,, and M. Lancellotti. 2002. Biological characteristics and pathogenicity of avian Escherichia coli strains. Vet. Microbiol. 85:4753.
48. Donnenberg, M. S.,, and T. S. Whittam. 2001. Pathogenesis and evolution of virulence in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Investig. 107: 539548.
49. Donovan, D. C.,, S. T. Franklin,, C. C. Chase,, and A. R. Hippen. 2002. Growth and health of Holstein calves fed milk replacers supplemented with antibiotics or Enteroguard. J. Dairy Sci. 85:947950.
50. Doublet, B.,, S. Schwarz,, E. Nussbeck,, S. Baucheron,, J. L. Martel,, E. Chaslus-Dancla,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2002. Molecular analysis of chromosomally florfenicol-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from France and Germany. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49:4954.
51. Dozois, C. M.,, J. M. Fairbrother,, J. Harel,, and M. Bosse. 1992. pap- and pil-related DNA sequences and other virulence determinants associated with Escherichia coli isolated from septicemic chickens and turkeys. Infect. Immun. 60:26482656.
52. Du, X.,, C. Xia,, J. Shen,, B. Wu,, and Z. Shen. 2004. Characterization of florfenicol resistance among calf pathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 236:183189.
53. Dubel, J. R.,, D. L. Zink,, L. M. Kelley,, S. A. Naqi,, and H. W. Renshaw. 1982. Bacterial antibiotic resistance: frequency of gentamicin-resistant strains of Escherichia coli in the fecal microflora of commercial turkeys. Am. J. Vet. Res. 43:17861789.
54. Dulaney, A. D.,, and I. D. Michelson. 1935. A study of B. coli mutabile from an outbreak of diarrhea in the newborn. Am. J. Public Health 25:12411251.
55. Dunlop, R. H.,, S. A. McEwen,, A. H. Meek,, R. C. Clarke,, W. D. Black,, and R. M. Friendship. 1998. Associations among antimicrobial drug treatments and antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli of swine on 34 farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario, Canada. Prev. Vet. Med. 34:283305.
56. Engberg, J.,, F. M. Aarestrup,, D. E. Taylor,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, and I. Nachamkin. 2001. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:2434.
57. Erskine, R. J.,, S. Wagner,, and F. J. DeGraves. 2003. Mastitis therapy and pharmacology. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 19:109138, vi.
58. Erskine, R. J.,, R. D. Walker,, C. A. Bolin,, P. C. Bartlett,, and D. G. White. 2002. Trends in antibacterial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens during a seven-year period. J. Dairy Sci. 85:11111118.
59. Escherich, T. 1989. The intestinal bacteria of the neonate and breast-fed infant. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11:352356.
60. Everett, M. J.,, Y. F. Jin,, V. Ricci,, and L. J. Piddock. 1996. Contributions of individual mechanisms to fluoroquinolone resistance in 36 Escherichia coli strains isolated from humans and animals. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:23802386.
61. Fang, W.,, and S. Pyorala. 1996. Mastitis-causing Escherichia coli: serum sensitivity and susceptibility to selected antibacterials in milk. J. Dairy Sci. 79:7682.
62. Fecteau, G.,, J. M. Fairbrother,, R. Higgins,, D. C. Van Metre,, J. Pare,, B. P. Smith,, C. A. Holmberg,, and S. Jang. 2001. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli isolated from the blood of bacteremic neonatal calves. Vet. Microbiol. 78:241249.
63. Feria, C.,, E. Ferreira,, J. D. Correia,, J. Goncalves,, and M. Canica. 2002. Patterns and mechanisms of resistance to β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from dogs in Portugal. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49:7785.
64. Foley, S. L.,, S. M. Horne,, C. W. Giddings,, M. Robinson,, and L. K. Nolan. 2000. Iss from a virulent avian Escherichia coli. Avian Dis. 44:185191.
65. Franklin, A. 1984. Antimicrobial drug resistance in porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of O-group 149 and non-enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Vet. Microbiol. 9:467475.
66. Franklin, A.,, and V. Glatthard. 1977. R-factor-mediated antibiotic resistance in E. coli strains isolated from piglets in Sweden. Zentbl. Bakteriol. Orig. A 238:208215.
67. Frydendahl, K. 2002. Prevalence of serogroups and virulence genes in Escherichia coli associated with postweaning diarrhoea and edema disease in pigs and a comparison of diagnostic approaches. Vet. Microbiol. 85:169182.
68. Gellin, G.,, B. E. Langlois,, K. A. Dawson,, and D. K. Aaron. 1989. Antibiotic resistance of gram-negative enteric bacteria from pigs in three herds with different histories of antibiotic exposure. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:22872292.
69. Geornaras, I.,, J. W. Hastings,, and A. von Holy. 2001. Genotypic analysis of Escherichia coli strains from poultry carcasses and their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:19401944.
70. Giraud, E.,, S. Leroy-Setrin,, G. Flaujac,, A. Cloeckaert,, M. Dho- Moulin,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2001. Characterization of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli O78: K80 isolated from turkeys. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 47: 341343.
71. Glisson, J. R.,, C. L. Hofacre,, and G. F. Mathis. 2004. Comparative efficacy of enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and sulfadimethoxine for the control of morbidity and mortality caused by Escherichia coli in broiler chickens. Avian Dis. 48:658662.
72. Gomis, S.,, L. Babiuk,, D. L. Godson,, B. Allan,, T. Thrush,, H. Townsend,, P. Willson,, E. Waters,, R. Hecker,, and A. Potter. 2003. Protection of chickens against Escherichia coli infections by DNA containing CpG motifs. Infect. Immun. 71:857863.
73. Gonzalez, E. A.,, and J. Blanco. 1989. Serotypes and antibiotic resistance of verotoxigenic (VTEC) and necrotizing (NTEC) Escherichia coli strains isolated from calves with diarrhoea. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 51:3136.
74. Gross, W. G., 1994. Diseases due to Escherichia coli in poultry, p. 237259. In C. L. Gyles (ed.), Escherichia coli in Domestic Animals and Humans. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.
75. Grugel, C.,, and J. Wallmann. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food-producing animals. Risk management tools and strategies. J. Vet. Med. B 51:419421.
76. Guardabassi, L.,, S. Schwarz,, and D. H. Lloyd. 2004. Pet animals as reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54:321332.
77. Haesebrouck, F.,, F. Pasmans,, K. Chiers,, D. Maes,, R. Ducatelle,, and A. Decostere. 2004. Efficacy of vaccines against bacterial diseases in swine: what can we expect? Vet. Microbiol. 100: 255268.
78. Hagman, R.,, and I. Kuhn. 2002. Escherichia coli strains isolated from the uterus and urinary bladder of bitches suffering from pyometra: comparison by restriction enzyme digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Vet. Microbiol. 84:143153.
79. Hall, R. M.,, and H. W. Stokes. 1993. Integrons: novel DNA elements which capture genes by site-specific recombination. Genetica 90:115132.
80. Hansen, L. H.,, E. Johannesen,, M. Burmolle,, A. H. Sorensen,, and S. J. Sorensen. 2004. Plasmid-encoded multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to olaquindox in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:33323337.
81. Hariharan, H.,, M. Coles,, D. Poole,, and R. Page. 2004. Antibiotic resistance among enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from piglets and calves with diarrhea. Can. Vet. J. 45: 605606.
82. Harnett, N. M.,, and C. L. Gyles. 1984. Resistance to drugs and heavy metals, colicin production, and biochemical characteristics of selected bovine and porcine Escherichia coli strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:930935.
83. Harnett, N. M.,, and C. L. Gyles. 1985. Linkage of genes for heat-stable enterotoxin, drug resistance, K99 antigen, and colicin in bovine and porcine strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Am. J. Vet. Res. 46:428433.
84. Hedges, R. W.,, and K.P. Shannon. 1984. Resistance to apramycin in Escherichia coli isolated from animals: detection of a novel aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130(Pt. 3):473482.
85. Heinrichs, A. J.,, C. M. Jones,, and B. S. Heinrichs. 2003. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide or antibiotics in neonatal diets on health and growth of dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 86:40644069.
86. Heinrichs, A. J.,, S. J. Wells,, and W. C. Losinger. 1995. A study of the use of milk replacers for dairy calves in the United States. J. Dairy Sci. 78:28312837.
87. Heisig, P. 1996. Genetic evidence for a role of parC mutations in development of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:879885.
88. Heisig, P.,, B. Kratz,, E. Halle,, Y. Graser,, M. Altwegg,, W. Rabsch,, and J. P. Faber. 1995. Identification of DNA gyrase A mutations in ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of Salmonella typhimurium from men and cattle in Germany. Microb. Drug Resist. 1:211218.
89. Hinton, M. 1986. The ecology of Escherichia coli in animals including man with particular reference to drug resistance. Vet. Rec. 119:420426.
90. Hirsh, D. C. 1973. Multiple antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from the urine of dogs and cats with cystitis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 162:885887.
91. Holland, R. E. 1990. Some infectious causes of diarrhea in young farm animals. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 3:345375.
92. Holland, R. E.,, R. A. Wilson,, M. S. Holland,, V. Yuzbasiyan- Gurkan,, T. P. Mullaney,, and D. G. White. 1999. Characterization of eae+Escherichia coli isolated from healthy and diarrheic calves. Vet. Microbiol. 66:251263.
93. Holmberg, S. D.,, S. L. Solomon,, and P. A. Blake. 1987. Health and economic impacts of antimicrobial resistance. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9:10651078.
94. Hooper, D. C. 2001. Emerging mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:337341.
95. Hummel, R.,, H. Tschape,, and W. Witte. 1986. Spread of plasmid-mediated nourseothricin resistance due to antibiotic use in animal husbandry. J. Basic Microbiol. 26:461466.
96. Hunter, J. E.,, M. Bennett,, C. A. Hart,, J. C. Shelley,, and J. R. Walton. 1994. Apramycin-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and a stockman. Epidemiol. Infect. 112: 473480.
97. Hunter, J. E.,, J. C. Shelley,, J. R. Walton,, C. A. Hart,, and M. Bennett. 1992. Apramycin resistance plasmids in Escherichia coli: possible transfer to Salmonella typhimurium in calves. Epidemiol. Infect. 108:271278.
98. Jay, C. M.,, S. Bhaskaran,, K. S. Rathore,, and S. D. Waghela. 2004. Enterotoxigenic K99+Escherichia coli attachment to host cell receptors inhibited by recombinant pili protein. Vet. Microbiol. 101:153160.
99. Jeffrey, J. S.,, L. K. Nolan,, K. H. Tonooka,, S. Wolfe,, C. W. Giddings,, S. M. Horne,, S. L. Foley,, A. M. Lynne,, J. O. Ebert,, L. M. Elijah,, G. Bjorklund,, S. J. Pfaff-McDonough,, R. S. Singer,, and C. Doetkott. 2002. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli from cellulitis or colisepticemia lesions in chickens. Avian Dis. 46:4852.
100. Johnson, T. J.,, J. Skyberg,, and L. K. Nolan. 2004. Multiple antimicrobial resistance region of a putative virulence plasmid from an Escherichia coli isolate incriminated in avian colibacillosis. Avian Dis. 48:351360.
101. Jorgensen, S. T. 1978. Chloramphenicol resistance plasmids in Escherichia coli isolated from diseased piglets. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 13:710715.
102. Jorgensen, S. T.,, and A. L. Poulsen. 1976. Antibiotic resistance and Hly plasmids in serotypes of Escherichia coli associated with porcine enteric disease. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 9:610.
103. Kaipainen, T.,, T. Pohjanvirta,, N. Y. Shpigel,, A. Shwimmer,, S. Pyorala,, and S. Pelkonen. 2002. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. Vet. Microbiol. 85:3746.
104. Kanai, H.,, H. Hashimoto,, and S. Mitsuhashi. 1983. Drug resistance and R plasmids in Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers. Microbiol. Immunol. 27:471478.
105.Reference deleted.
106. Kang, S. J.,, S. J. Ryu,, J. S. Chae,, S. K. Eo,, G. J. Woo,, and J. H. Lee. 2004. Occurrence and characteristics of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in calves associated with diarrhoea. Vet. Microbiol. 98:323328.
107. Keyes, K.,, C. Hudson,, J. J. Maurer,, S. Thayer,, D. G. White,, and M. D. Lee. 2000. Detection of florfenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from sick chickens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:421424.
108. Kwaga, J. K.,, B. J. Allan,, J. V. van der Hurk,, H. Seida,, and A. A. Potter. 1994. A carAB mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli serogroup O2 is attenuated and effective as a live oral vaccine against colibacillosis in turkeys. Infect. Immun. 62:37663772.
109. Langlois, B. E.,, G. L. Cromwell,, T. S. Stahly,, K. A. Dawson,, and V. W. Hays. 1983. Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms after long-term withdrawal of therapeutic and subtherapeutic antibiotic use in a swine herd. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:14331434.
110. Lanz, R.,, P. Kuhnert,, and P. Boerlin. 2003. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance gene determinants in clinical Escherichia coli from different animal species in Switzerland. Vet. Microbiol. 91:7384.
111. La Ragione, R. M.,, G. Casula,, S. M. Cutting,, and M. J. Woodward. 2001. Bacillus subtilis spores competitively exclude Escherichia coli O78:K80 in poultry. Vet. Microbiol. 79:133142.
112. La Ragione, R. M.,, A. Narbad,, M. J. Gasson,, and M. J. Woodward. 2004. In vivo characterization of Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785 for use as a defined competitive exclusion agent against bacterial pathogens in poultry. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 38:197205.
113. La Ragione, R. M.,, and M. J. Woodward. 2002. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli serotypes associated with avian colisepticaemia. Res. Vet. Sci. 73:2735.
114. Lee, C.,, B. E. Langlois,, and K. A. Dawson. 1993. Detection of tetracycline resistance determinants in pig isolates from three herds with different histories of antimicrobial agent exposure. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:14671472.
115. Lehtolainen, T.,, A. Shwimmer,, N. Y. Shpigel,, T. Honkanen- Buzalski,, and S. Pyorala. 2003. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from clinical bovine mastitis in Finland and Israel. J. Dairy Sci. 86:39273932.
116. Libal, M. C.,, and C. E. Gates. 1982. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs with diarrhea. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 180:908909.
117. Linton, A. H.,, K. Howe,, C. L. Hartley,, H. M. Clements,, M. H. Richmond,, and A. D. Osborne. 1977. Antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli O-serotypes from the gut and carcases of commercially slaughtered broiler chickens: a potential public health hazard. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 42:365378.
118. Linton, A. H.,, K. Howe,, W. J. Sojka,, and C. Wray. 1979. A note on the range of Escherichia coli O-serotypes causing clinical bovine mastitis and their antibiotic resistance spectra. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 46:585590.
119. Makovec, J. A.,, and P. L. Ruegg. 2003. Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from dairy cow milk samples submitted for bacterial culture: 8,905 samples (1994-2001). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 222:15821589.
120. Margard, W. L.,, A. C. Peters,, R. N. Pesut,, and J. H. Litchfield. 1971. Chlortetracycline resistance in enteric microorganisms in chickens and swine. Dev. Ind. Microbiol. 12:376392.
121. Martel, J. L.,, M. Contrepois,, H. C. Dubourguier,, J. P. Girardeau,, P. Gouet,, C. Bordas,, F. Hayers,, A. Quilleriet-Eliez,, J. Ramisse,, and R. Sendral. 1981. Frequence of K99 antigen and antibioresistance in Escherichia coli from calves in France. Ann. Rech. Vet. 12:253257. (In French.)
122. Martins, M. F.,, N. M. Martinez-Rossi,, A. Ferreira,, M. Brocchi,, T. Yano,, A. F. Castro,, and W. D. Silveira. 2000. Pathogenic characteristics of Escherichia coli strains isolated from newborn piglets with diarrhea in Brazil. Vet. Microbiol. 76:5159.
123. Mathew, A. G.,, W. G. Upchurch,, and S. E. Chattin. 1998. Incidence of antibiotic resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolated from commercial swine farms. J. Anim. Sci. 76: 429434.
124. Maynard, C.,, J. M. Fairbrother,, S. Bekal,, F. Sanschagrin,, R. C. Levesque,, R. Brousseau,, L. Masson,, S. Lariviere,, and J. Harel. 2003. Antimicrobial resistance genes in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O149:K91 isolates obtained over a 23- year period from pigs. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 32143221.
125. McDermott, P. F.,, D. J. Eaves,, L. J. V. Piddock,, R. D. Walker,, S. Zhao,, S. Ayers,, S. Bodeis,, and D. G. White. 2002. Characterization of multiple fluoroquinolone resistance among bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli, abstr. Z-44, p. 515. Abstr. 102nd Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 2002. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
126. McGruder, E. D.,, and G. M. Moore. 1999. Use of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a positive control for the evaluation of immunopotentiating drug candidates in experimental avian colibacillosis models. Res. Vet. Sci. 66:3337.
127. Mellata, M.,, M. Dho-Moulin,, C. M. Dozois,, R. Curtiss III,, P. K. Brown,, P. Arne,, A. Bree,, C. Desautels,, and J. M. Fairbrother. 2003. Role of virulence factors in resistance of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli to serum and in pathogenicity. Infect. Immun. 71:536540.
128. Mercer, H. D.,, D. Pocurull,, S. Gaines,, S. Wilson,, and J. V. Bennett. 1971. Characteristics of antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli from animals: relationship to veterinary and management uses of antimicrobial agents. Appl. Microbiol. 22:700705.
129. Meunier, D.,, J. F. Acar,, J. L. Martel,, S. Kroemer,, and M. Valle. 2004. Seven years survey of susceptibility to marbofloxacin of bovine pathogenic strains from eight European countries. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 24:268278.
130. Miniats, O. P.,, and C. K. Roe. 1968. Escherichia coli infections in early weaned pigs. Can. Vet. J. 9:210217.
131. Mitsuhashi, S.,, H. Hashimoto,, and K. Suzuki. 1967. Drug resistance of enteric bacteria. 13. Distribution of R factors in Escherichia coli strains isolated from livestock. J. Bacteriol. 94:11661169.
132. Moon, H. W.,, and T. O. Bunn. 1993. Vaccines for preventing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in farm animals. Vaccine 11:213200.
133. Nagy, B.,, and P. Z. Fekete. 1999. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in farm animals. Vet. Res. 30: 259284.
134. Nataro, J. P.,, and J. B. Kaper. 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11:142201.
134a..National Veterinary Institute. SVARM 2002: Swedish Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring. National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
135. Nazer, A. H. 1980. Transmissible drug resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from poultry and their carcasses in Iran. Cornell Vet. 70:365371.
136. Normand, E. H.,, N. R. Gibson,, S. W. Reid,, S. Carmichael,, and D. J. Taylor. 2000. Antimicrobial-resistance trends in bacterial isolates from companion-animal community practice in the UK. Prev. Vet. Med. 46:267278.
137. Oluoch, A. O.,, C. H. Kim,, R. M. Weisiger,, H. Y. Koo,, A. M. Siegel,, K. L. Campbell,, T. J. Burke,, B. C. McKiernan,, and I. Kakoma. 2001. Nonenteric Escherichia coli isolates from dogs: 674 cases (1990-1998). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 218:381384.
138. Orden, J. A.,, J. A. Ruiz- Santa -Quiteria,, S. Garcia,, D. Cid,, and R. delaFuente. 1999. In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:510513.
139. Orden, J. A.,, J. A. Ruiz- Santa- Quiteria,, S. Garcia,, D. Cid,, and R. delaFuente. 2000. In vitro susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhoeic dairy calves to 15 antimicrobial agents. J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health 47:329335.
140. Orskov, F.,, and I. Orskov. 1990. The serology of capsular antigens. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 150:4363.
141. Orskov, I.,, and F. Orskov. 1985. Escherichia coli in extraintestinal infections. J. Hyg. Lond. 95:551575.
142. Osek, J. 2000. Clonal analysis of Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs with post-weaning diarrhea by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 186:327331.
143. Osek, J. 2003. Detection of the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene and its relationship with fimbrial and enterotoxin markers in E. coli isolates from pigs with diarrhoea. Vet. Microbiol. 91:6572.
144. Osek, J.,, M. Truszczynski,, K. Tarasiuk,, and Z. Pejsak. 1995. Evaluation of different vaccines to control of pig colibacillosis under large-scale farm conditions. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:18.
145. Piddock, L. J. 1996. Does the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry select antibiotic-resistant bacteria that infect man and compromise antimicrobial chemotherapy? J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 38:13.
146. Piddock, L. J. 1998. Fluoroquinolone resistance: overuse of fluoroquinolones in human and veterinary medicine can breed resistance. Br. Med. J. 317:10291030.
147. Pyorala, S. 2002. New strategies to prevent mastitis. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 37:211216.
148. Pyorala, S. H.,, and E. O. Pyorala. 1998. Efficacy of parenteral administration of three antimicrobial agents in treatment of clinical mastitis in lactating cows: 487 cases (1989-1995). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 212:407412.
149. Rajala-Schultz, P. J.,, K. L. Smith,, J. S. Hogan,, and B. C. Love. 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens from first lactation and older cows. Vet. Microbiol. 102:3342.
150. Recchia, G. D.,, and R. M. Hall. 1997. Origins of the mobile gene cassettes found in integrons. Trends Microbiol. 5:389394.
151. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, and E. L. Hartland. 2002. Escherichia coli as a cause of diarrhea. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17:467475.
152. Rollins, L. D.,, D. W. Pocurull,, H. D. Mercer,, R. P. Natzke,, and D. S. Postle. 1974. Use of antibiotics in a dairy herd and their effect on resistance determinants in enteric and environmental Escherichia coli. J. Dairy Sci. 57:944950.
153. Saenz, Y.,, M. Zarazaga,, L. Brinas,, F. Ruiz-Larrea,, and C. Torres. 2003. Mutations in gyrA and parC genes in nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli strains from food products, humans and animals. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51:10011005.
154. Sallen, B.,, A. Rajoharison,, S. Desvarenne,, and C. Mabilat. 1995. Molecular epidemiology of integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. Microb. Drug Resist. 1:195202.
155. Sanchez, S.,, M. A. McCrackin Stevenson,, C. R. Hudson,, M. Maier,, T. Buffington,, Q. Dam,, and J. J. Maurer. 2002. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates associated with nosocomial infections in dogs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:35863595.
156. Sandholm, M.,, L. Kaartinen,, and S. Pyorala. 1990. Bovine mastitis—why does antibiotic therapy not always work? An overview. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 13:248260.
157. Schwartz, B.,, D. M. Bell,, and J. M. Hughes. 1997. Preventing the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. A call for action by clinicians, public health officials, and patients. JAMA 278:944945.
158. Sengelov, G.,, B. Halling-Sorensen,, and F. M. Aarestrup. 2003. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs and broiler chickens to tetracycline degradation products and distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants in E. coli from food animals. Vet. Microbiol. 95:91101.
159. Seriwatana, J.,, P. Echeverria,, D. N. Taylor,, L. Rasrinaul,, J. E. Brown,, J. S. Peiris,, and C. L. Clayton. 1988. Type II heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from animals and humans. Infect. Immun. 56:11581161.
160. Shiraki, Y.,, N. Shibata,, Y. Doi,, and Y. Arakawa. 2004. Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-2 β-lactamase in cattle, Japan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:6975.
161. Shpigel, N. Y.,, D. Levin,, M. Winkler,, A. Saran,, G. Ziv,, and A. Bottner. 1997. Efficacy of cefquinome for treatment of cows with mastitis experimentally induced using Escherichia coli. J. Dairy Sci. 80:318323.
162. Singer, R. S.,, S. K. Patterson,, A. E. Meier,, J. K. Gibson,, H. L. Lee,, and C. W. Maddox. 2004. Relationship between phenotypic and genotypic florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:40474049.
163. Smith, H. W. 1958. Drug-resistant bacteria in domestic animals. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 51:812813.
164. Smith, H. W. 1966. The incidence of infective drug resistance in strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diseased human beings and domestic animals. J. Hyg. Lond. 64: 465474.
165. Smith, H. W. 1968. Antimicrobial drugs in animal feeds. Nature 218:728731.
166. Smith, H. W. 1971. The effect of the use of antibacterial drugs on the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria in animals. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med. 15:67100.
167. Smith, H. W.,, and S. Halls. 1966. Observations on infective drug resistance in Britain. Br. Med. J. 5482:266269.
168. Smith, H. W.,, and M. A. Lovell. 1981. Escherichia coli resistant to tetracyclines and to other antibiotics in the faeces of U.K. chickens and pigs in 1980. J. Hyg. Lond. 87:477483.
169. Sogaard, H. 1982. In-vitro antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli isolated from acute and chronic bovine mastitis with reference to clinical efficacy. Nord. Vetmed. 34:248254.
170. Sojka, W. J.,, and R. B. A. Carnaghan. 1961. Escherichia coli infection in poultry. Res. Vet. Sci. 2:340.
171. Sunde, M.,, K. Fossum,, A. Solberg,, and H. Sorum. 1998. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli of the normal intestinal flora of swine. Microb. Drug Resist. 4:289299.
172. Sundlof, S. F.,, J. B. Kaneene,, and R.A. Miller. 1995. National survey on veterinarian-initiated drug use in lactating dairy cows. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 207:347352.
173. Swann, M. M. 1969. Report of the Joint Committee on the Use of Antibiotics in Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine. Health and Agriculture Ministers, London, United Kingdom
174. Teshager, T.,, L. Dominguez,, M. A. Moreno,, Y. Saenz,, C. Torres,, and S. Cardenosa. 2000. Isolation of an SHV-12 β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strain from a dog with recurrent urinary tract infections. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:34833484.
175. Thiele, E. H.,, E. L. Dulaney,, M. J. Carey,, and D. Hendlin. 1968. Detection of R factor-bearing microorganisms in laboratory animals. J. Bacteriol. 95:1184.
176. Tibbetts, R. J.,, D. G. White,, N. W. Dyer,, C. W. Giddings,, and L. K. Nolan. 2003. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolates incriminated in colisepticaemia in mink. Vet. Res. Commun. 27:341357.
177.U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2002. Dairy 2002, Part I: Reference of Dairy Health and Management in the United States, 2002, p. 192. Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colo.
178. Vandemaele, F.,, M. Vereecken,, J. Derijcke,, and B. M. Goddeeris. 2002. Incidence and antibiotic resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli among poultry in Belgium. Vet. Rec. 151:355356.
179. van den Bogaard, A. E.,, N. London,, C. Driessen,, and E. E. Stobberingh. 2001. Antibiotic resistance of faecal Escherichia coli in poultry, poultry farmers and poultry slaughterers. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 47:763771.
180. van den Bogaard, A. E.,, and E. E. Stobberingh. 2000. Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics. Links between animals and humans. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 14:327335.
181. Verdonck, F.,, E. Cox,, and B. M. Goddeeris. 2004. F4 fimbriae expressed by porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, an example of an eccentric fimbrial system? J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 7:155169.
182. Vulfson, L.,, K. Pedersen,, M. Chriel,, K. Frydendahl,, T. H. Andersen,, M. Madsen,, and H. H. Dietz. 2001. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark. Vet. Microbiol. 79:143153.
183. Wallmann, J.,, K. Schroter,, L. H. Wieler,, and R. Kroker. 2003. National antibiotic resistance monitoring in veterinary pathogens from sick food-producing animals: the German programme and results from the 2001 pilot study. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 22:420428.
184. Walton, J. R. 1966. Infectious drug resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals. Lancet ii:13001302.
185. Warren, A.,, K. Townsend,, T. King,, S. Moss,, D. O’Boyle,, R. Yates,, and D. J. Trott. 2001. Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase activity and fluoroquinolone resistance isolated from clinical infections in dogs. Aust. Vet. J. 79:621623.
186. Wasteson, Y. 2001. Zoonotic Escherichia coli. Acta Vet. Scand. Suppl. 95:7984.
187. Watanabe, T. 1963. Infective heredity of multiple drug resistance in bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev. 27:87115.
188. Watts, J. L.,, S. A. Salmon,, M. S. Sanchez,, and R. J. Yancey, Jr. 1997. In vitro activity of premafloxacin, a new extended-spectrum fluoroquinolone, against pathogens of veterinary importance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:11901192.
189. Werckenthin, C.,, S. Seidl,, J. Riedl,, E. Kiossis,, G. Wolf,, R. Stolla,, and O. R. Kaaden. 2002. Escherichia coli isolates from young calves in Bavaria: in vitro susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobial agents. J. Vet. Med. B 49:6165.
190. Wernicki, A.,, J. Krzyzanowski,, and A. Puchalski. 2002. Characterization of Escherichia coli strains associated with canine pyometra. Pol. J. Vet. Sci. 5:5156.
191. White, D. G.,, C. Hudson,, J. J. Maurer,, S. Ayers,, S. Zhao,, M. D. Lee,, L. Bolton,, T. Foley,, and J. Sherwood. 2000. Characterization of chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli associated with bovine diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:45934598.
192. White, D. G.,, L. J. Piddock,, J. J. Maurer,, S. Zhao,, V. Ricci,, and S. G. Thayer. 2000. Characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance among veterinary isolates of avian Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:28972899.
193. Wierup, M. 1975. Antibiotic resistance and transferable antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from Swedish calves 5 and 30 days old. Nord. Vetmed. 27: 7784.
194. Wierup, M. 2001. The experience of reducing antibiotics used in animal production in the Nordic countries. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 18:287290.
195. Williams, R. J.,, and D. L. Heymann. 1998. Containment of antibiotic resistance. Science 279:11531154.
196. Wray, C.,, R. W. Hedges,, K. P. Shannon,, and D. E. Bradley. 1986. Apramycin and gentamicin resistance in Escherichia coli and salmonellas isolated from farm animals. J. Hyg. Lond. 97:445456.
196a. Wray, C.,, and M. J. Woodward,. 1997. Escherichia coli infections in farm animals, p. 4984. In M. Sussman (ed.), Escherichia coli:Mechanisms of Virulence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
197. Yang, H.,, S. Chen,, D. G. White,, S. Zhao,, P. McDermott,, R. Walker,, and J. Meng. 2004. Characterization of multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from diseased chickens and swine in China. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:34833489.
198. Zhao, S.,, D. G. White,, P. F. McDermott,, S. Friedman,, L. English,, S. Ayers,, J. Meng,, J. J. Maurer,, R. Holland,, and R. D. Walker. 2001. Identification and expression of cephamycinase bla(CMY) genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from food animals and ground meat. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:36473650.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error