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Chapter 11 : Antimicrobial Resistance in Members of the Family

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses mainly on the genera , , , , and , for which sufficient data on antimicrobial susceptibility and the detection of resistance genes are currently available. A study in Germany, investigating the susceptibility of bovine isolates of and collected in 1999 to spectinomycin and comparator agents, showed that none of the 302 isolates tested were resistant to florfenicol, cefquinome, or ceftiofur, and only 6.5% of the and 1.4% of the isolates were classified as resistant to spectinomycin. The chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge of resistance genes and resistance mediating mutations so far detected in bacteria of the genera , , , and . Molecular analysis of isolates of , and revealed that antimicrobial resistance genes were associated with plasmids in many cases. The examples given in the chapter illustrate that , , , and have obviously acquired a number of resistance genes from other gram-negative or maybe even gram-positive bacteria. Knowledge of the location and colocation of the resistance genes on mobile genetic elements as well as the conditions for their coselection and persistence will be valuable for veterinarians and will assist them in selecting the most efficacious antimicrobial agents for the control of isolates of the family .

Citation: Kehrenberg C, Stefan, Walker R, Wu C. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Members of the Family, p 167-186. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch11

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Mobile Genetic Elements
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Outer Membrane Proteins
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Gram-Negative Bacteria
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Gram-Positive Bacteria
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16s rRNA Sequencing
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Figures

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Figure 1.

Structure and organization of selected resistance plasmids from members of the family Pasteurellaceae (Table 3). The genes are shown as arrows with the arrowhead indicating the direction of transcription. A distance scale in kilobases is given below each map. The following genes are involved in antimicrobial resistance: tetR-tet(H) (tetracycline resistance), sul2 (sulfonamide resistance), strA and strB (streptomycin resistance), catA3 (chloramphenicol resistance), aphA1 (kanamycin and neomycin resistance), and blaRob-1 (β-lactam resistance). rep, repA″, repB″, and repC″ are involved in plasmid replication, and mobA, mobB, mobC, mobA″, mobB″, and mobC″ are involved in mobilization functions. The prefix Δ indicates a truncated, functionally inactive gene. The boxes in the map of pPMT1 indicate the insertion sequences IS1596 and IS1597, with the arrows within these boxes marking the transposase genes. Restriction endonuclease cleavage sites are abbreviated as follows: C, ClaI; E, EcoRI; Ev, EcoRV; Hp, HpaI; P, PstI; S, SacI.

Citation: Kehrenberg C, Stefan, Walker R, Wu C. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Members of the Family, p 167-186. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch11
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

In vitro susceptibility data for isolates from different animal sources

Citation: Kehrenberg C, Stefan, Walker R, Wu C. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Members of the Family, p 167-186. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Antimicrobial resistance genes identified in Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Actinobacillus, and Haemophilus

Citation: Kehrenberg C, Stefan, Walker R, Wu C. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Members of the Family, p 167-186. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Resistance plasmids identified in Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Actinobacillus, and Haemophilus

Citation: Kehrenberg C, Stefan, Walker R, Wu C. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Members of the Family, p 167-186. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch11

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