1887

Chapter 16 : Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817534/9781555813062_Chap16-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817534/9781555813062_Chap16-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter provides a review of prevalence and trends of resistance in and isolated from humans in different parts of the world and a more thorough description of the mechanisms of resistance, origin, spread, and clinical consequences of resistance. Aminoglycosides exhibit rapid and significant bactericidal effects in vitro and should initially be included for the treatment of bacteremia in patients who appear very ill. The only mechanism of chloramphenicol resistance identified in occurs through modification of chloramphenicol by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, which prevents its binding to the ribosome. The majority of contacts between Tet(O) and the ribosome are mediated by the rRNA, and one interaction with ribosomal protein S12. Most of the antimicrobials used in veterinary medicine are tetracyclines and macrolides, which result in high and continuous selective pressure for the animal-colonizing bacteria, ultimately resulting in the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance genes. Investigation into the mechanisms of action of antimicrobials, as well as the transfer of resistance determinants, is necessary to gain effective control of antimicrobial resistance. Epidemiological and microbiological studies show that poultry is the most important source for quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant infections in humans. Trends over time for macrolide resistance show stable low rates in most countries, and macrolides should remain the drug class of choice for and enteritis.

Citation: Engberg J, Gerner-Smidt P, Keelan M, Taylor D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter, p 269-292. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch16

Key Concept Ranking

Outer Membrane Proteins
0.4742716
Campylobacter coli
0.45169926
Campylobacter jejuni
0.45169926
Campylobacter coli
0.45169926
0.4742716
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Trends for quinolone resistance rates (in percentages) among and combined from human sources around the world. The bars represent both nalidixic acid and fluoroquinolone resistance and are based on mean values of resistance from numerous reports. Updated and modified from reference . Additional data are from references , and , and V. Prouzet-Mauléon (personal communication).

Citation: Engberg J, Gerner-Smidt P, Keelan M, Taylor D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter, p 269-292. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Quinolone resistance rates (in percentages) among (Denmark, The Netherlands, and Norway) and and combined (Finland, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States) by history of travel. Data are from references , and .

Citation: Engberg J, Gerner-Smidt P, Keelan M, Taylor D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter, p 269-292. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

(A) Elongation cycle of protein synthesis; (B) inhibition by tetracycline (Tc); (C) model for Tet(O) action. (A) In the absence of antibiotics, the aa-tRNA–EF-Tu–GTP ternary complex catalyzes the binding of aa-tRNA to the open A site on the pretranslocation-state (Pre) ribosome. (B) Tc initially binds to the posttranslation-state (Post) ribosome and induces a conformational change (or steric clash) that blocks the aa-tRNA–EF-Tu–GTP ternary complex from occupying the A site, effectively inhibiting further protein synthesis. (C) If Tet(O) is present, it recognizes the Tc-blocked ribosome by virtue of its open A site, prolonged pausing, and possibly by a drug-induced conformational change. The interaction of Tet(O) with the ribosome induces rearrangements in the A site and triggers the release of Tc from the primary binding site prior to GTP hydrolysis. Tet(O) then hydrolyzes the bound GTP and likely leaves the ribosome with the GTPase-associated region in a configuration compatible with EF-Tu binding, thereby allowing protein synthesis to continue. Adapted from references and .

Citation: Engberg J, Gerner-Smidt P, Keelan M, Taylor D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter, p 269-292. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817534.chap16
1. Aarestrup, F. M.,, E. M. Nielsen,, M. Madsen,, and J. Engberg. 1997. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 2244 2250.
2. Aarestrup, F. M.,, and H. C. Wegener. 1999. The effects of antibiotic usage in food animals on the development of antimicrobial resistance of importance for humans in Campylobacter and Escherichia coli. Microbes Infect. 8: 639 644.
3. Acar, J. F.,, and F. W. Goldstein. 1997. Trends in bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24(Suppl. 1): S67 S73.
4. Adler Mosca, H.,, J. Luthy Hottenstein,, G. Martinetti Lucchini,, A. Burnens,, and M. Altwegg. 1991. Development of resistance to quinolones in five patients with campylobacteriosis treated with norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10: 953 957.
5. Afset, J. E.,, and J. A. Maeland. 2001. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter jejuni. Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen. 121: 2152 2154. (In Norwegian.)
6.Reference deleted.
7.Anonymous. 2003. MARAN-2002: Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance and Antibiotic Usage in Animals in The Netherlands in 2002. CIDC-Lelystad, Lelystad, The Netherlands.
8.Anonymous. 2004. Annual Report on Zoonoses in Denmark 2003, p. 1 31. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Danish Zoonosis Centre, Søborg, Denmark.
9.Anonymous. 2004. DANMAP 2003Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Food Animals, Foods and Humans in Denmark. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Copenhagen, Denmark.
10.Anonymous. 2004. MARAN 2003: Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance and Antibiotic Usage in Animals in The Netherlands in 2003. CIDC-Lelystad, Lelystad, The Netherlands.
11.Anonymous. 2004. NORM/NORM-VET 2003. Usage of Antimicrobial Agents and Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Norway. Norwegian Zoonosis Centre, Oslo, Norway.
12.Anonymous. 2004. Norwegian Action Plan against Campylobacter in Broilers. Tromsø/Oslo, Norway.
13. Bachoual, R.,, S. Ouabdesselam,, F. Mory,, C. Lascols,, C. J. Soussy,, and J. Tankovic. 2001. Single or double mutational alterations of GyrA associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Microb. Drug Resist. 7: 257 261.
14. Ban, N.,, P. Nissen,, J. Hansen,, M. Capel,, P. B. Moore,, and T. A. Steitz. 1999. Placement of protein and RNA structures into a 5 Å-resolution map of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Nature 400: 841 847.
15. Bauernfeind, A. 1997. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of the quinolones Bay 12-8039, gatifloxacin (AM 1155), trovafloxacin, clinafloxacin, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 40: 639 651.
16. Beckmann, L.,, M. Muller,, P. Luber,, C. Schrader,, E. Bartelt,, and G. Klein. 2004. Analysis of gyrA mutations in quinolone-resistant and -susceptible Campylobacter jejuni isolates from retail poultry and human clinical isolates by non-radioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. J. Appl. Microbiol. 96: 1040 1047.
17. Bilgin, N.,, A. A. Richter,, M. Ehrenberg,, A. E. Dahlberg,, and C. G. Kurland. 1990. Ribosomal RNA and protein mutants resistant to spectinomycin. EMBO J. 9: 735 739.
18. Blaser, M. J., 2000. Campylobacter jejuni and related species, p. 2276 2285. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Churchill Livingstone Inc., New York, N.Y.
19. Bodhidatta, L.,, N. Vithayasai,, B. Eimpokalarp,, C. Pitarangsi,, O. Serichantalergs,, and D. W. Isenbarger. 2002. Bacterial enteric pathogens in children with acute dysentery in Thailand: increasing importance of quinolone-resistant Campylobacter. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 33: 752 757.
20. Borges-Walmsley, M. I.,, K. S. McKeegan,, and A. R. Walmsley. 2003. Structure and function of efflux pumps that confer resistance to drugs. Biochem. J. 376: 313 338.
21. Brodersen, D. E.,, W. M. Clemons, Jr., A. P. Carter, R. J. Morgan-Warren, B. T. Wimberly, and V. Ramakrishnan. 2000. The structural basis for the action of the antibiotics tetracycline, pactamycin, and hygromycin B on the 30S ribosomal subunit. Cell 103: 1143 1154.
22. Burdett, V. 1991. Purification and characterization of Tet(M), a protein that renders ribosomes resistant to tetracycline. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 2872 2877.
23. Burdett, V. 1996. Tet(M)-promoted release of tetracycline from ribosomes is GTP dependent. J. Bacteriol. 178: 3246 3251.
24. Butaye, P.,, A. Cloeckaert,, and S. Schwarz. 2003. Mobile genes coding for efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 22: 205 210.
25.The Campylobacter Sentinel Surveillance Scheme Collaborators. 2002. Ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni: case-case analysis as a tool for elucidating risks at home and abroad. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 50: 561568.
26. Carattoli, A. 2001. Importance of integrons in the diffusion of resistance. Vet. Res. 32: 243 259.
27. Carter, A. P.,, W. M. Clemons,, D. E. Brodersen,, R. J. Morgan- Warren,, B. T. Wimberly,, and V. Ramakrishnan. 2000. Functional insights from the structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit and its interactions with antibiotics. Nature 407: 340 348.
28. Cate, J. H.,, M. M. Yusupov,, G. Z. Yusupova,, T. N. Earnest,, and H. F. Noller. 1999. X-ray crystal structures of 70S ribosome functional complexes. Science 285: 2095- 2104.
29.. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS): 2001 Annual Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Ga.
30. Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS): 2002 Annual Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Ga.
31. Chopra, I. 1994. Tetracycline analogs whose primary target is not the bacterial ribosome. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38: 637 640.
32. Chopra, I.,, P. M. Hawkey,, and M. Hinton. 1992. Tetracyclines, molecular and clinical aspects. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 29: 245 277.
33. Chopra, I.,, and M. Roberts. 2001. Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65: 232 260.
34. Chu, Y. W.,, M. Y. Chu,, K. Y. Luey,, Y. W. Ngan,, K. L. Tsang,, and K. M. Kam. 2004. Genetic relatedness and quinolone resistance of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated in 2002 in Hong Kong. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 3321 3323.
35. Clemons, W. M., Jr., J. L. May, B. T. Wimberly, J. P. McCutcheon, M. S. Capel, and V. Ramakrishnan. 1999. Structure of a bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit at 5.5 Å resolution. Nature 400: 833 840.
36. Connell, S. R.,, D. M. Tracz,, K. H. Nierhaus,, and D. E. Taylor. 2003. Ribosomal protection proteins and their mechanism of tetracycline resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 3675 3681.
37. Connell, S. R.,, C. A. Trieber,, G. P. Dinos,, E. Einfeldt,, D. E. Taylor,, and K. H. Nierhaus. 2003. Mechanism of Tet(O)- mediated tetracycline resistance. EMBO J. 22: 945 953.
38. Cooper, R.,, H. Segal,, A. J. Lastovica,, and B. G. Elisha. 2002. Genetic basis of quinolone resistance and epidemiology of resistant and susceptible isolates of porcine Campylobacter coli strains. J. Appl. Microbiol. 93: 241 249.
38a.. Crawford, L. 2005. Final decision of the commissioner. Withdrawal of approval of the new animal drug application for enrofloxacin in poultry. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Md.
39. Davidson, D. J. 2004. Proposal to withdraw approval of the new animal drug application for enrofloxacin for poultry. Initial decision, p. 1 68. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Md.
40. Dever, L. A.,, and T. S. Dermody. 1991. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Arch. Intern. Med. 151:886-895.
41. Drlica, K.,, and X. Zhao. 1997. DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 61: 377- 392.
42. Ellis-Pegler, R. B.,, L. K. Hyman,, R. J. Ingram,, and M. Mc- Carthy. 1995. A placebo controlled evaluation of lomefloxacin in the treatment of bacterial diarrhoea in the community. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36: 259 263.
43. Emborg, H.-D.,, and O. E. Heuer (ed. 2003. DANMAP 2002Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Food Animals, Foods and Humans in Denmark, p. 3 67. The Danish Zoonosis Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
44. Endtz, H. P.,, G. J. Ruijs,, B. van Klingeren,, W. H. Jansen,, T. van der Reyden,, and R. P. Mouton. 1991. Quinolone resistance in Campylobacter isolated from man and poultry following the introduction of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 27: 199 208.
45. Engberg, J.Unpublished data.
46. Engberg, J.,, F. M. Aarestrup,, D. E. Taylor,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, and I. Nachamkin. 2001. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7: 24 34.
47. Engberg, J.,, J. Neimann,, E. M. Nielsen,, F. M. Aarestrup,, and V. Fussing. 2004. Quinolone-resistant Campylobacter infections: risk factors and clinical consequences. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1056 1063.
48. Engberg, J.,, K. Schønning,, M. Voldstedlund,, E. Dzajic,, and N. Frimodt Moller. 2004. Bactericidal activity of five antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter jejuni tested by time-kill studies. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10: 336.
49. Feierl, G. 2004. Jahresbericht 2003 der Nationalen Referenzzentrale für Campylobacter, Mitteilungen der Sanitätsverwaltung, p. 3 7. Institute of Hygiene, Graz, Austria.
50. Feierl, G.,, C. Berghold,, J. Posch,, G. Gorkiewicz,, E. Daghofer,, and E. Marth. 2003. Epidemiology, clinical features and therapy of campylobacteriosis in Styria, Austria. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 293(Suppl. 35): 134.
51. Feierl, G.,, U. Wagner,, B. Sixl,, A. Grisold,, E. Daghofer,, and E. Marth. Epidemiology of campylobacteriosis and development of resistance in Styria, Austria. Presented at the 11th International Workshop on Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms, Freiburg, Germany, 1 to 5 September 2001
52. Fernandez, H. 2001. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter: the consequences for incidence, clinical course, epidemiology and control, p. 67-72. In The Increasing Incidence of Human Campylobacteriosis: Report and Proceedings of a WHO Consultation of Experts, Copenhagen, Denmark, 21- 25 November 2000. Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
53. Friedman, C. R.,, R. M. Hoekstra,, M. Samuel,, R. Marcus,, J. Bender,, B. Shiferaw,, S. Reddy,, S. D. Ahuja,, D. L. Helfrick,, F. Hardnett,, M. Carter,, B. Anderson,, and R. V. Tauxe. 2004. Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection in the United States: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3): S285 S296.
54. Fussing, V.,, E. M. Nielsen,, J. Engberg,, and J. Neimann. 2003. Intensive microbiologic and epidemiologic Campylobacter surveillance in two Danish counties. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 293(Suppl. 35): 139.
55. Gaudreau, C.,, and H. Gilbert. 2003. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains isolated from humans in 1998 to 2001 in Montreal, Canada. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 2027 2029.
56. Gaudreau, C. L.,, L. A. Lariviere,, J. C. Lauzer,, and F. F. Turgeon. 1987. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight β-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31: 940 942.
57. Gibreel, A.,, V. N. Kos,, M. Keelan,, C. A. Trieber,, S. Levesque,, S. Michaud,, and D. E. Taylor. 2004. Macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli: molecular mechanism and stability of the resistance phenotype. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 2753 2759.
58. Gibreel, A.,, and O. Skold. 1998. High-level resistance to trimethoprim in clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni by acquisition of foreign genes (dfr1 and dfr9) expressing drug-insensitive dihydrofolate reductases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 3059 3064.
59. Gibreel, A.,, and O. Skold. 2000. An integron cassette carrying dfr1 with 90-bp repeat sequences located on the chromosome of trimethoprim-resistant isolates of Campylobacter jejuni. Microb. Drug Resist. 6: 91 98.
60. Gibreel, A.,, O. Skold,, and D. E. Taylor. 2004. Characterization of plasmid-mediated aphA-3 kanamycin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Microb. Drug Resist. 10: 98 105.
61. Gibreel, A.,, D. M. Tracz,, L. Nonaka,, T. M. Ngo,, S. R. Connell,, and D. E. Taylor. 2004. Incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated in Alberta, Canada, from 1999 to 2002, with special reference to tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 3442 3450.
62.Reference deleted.
63. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, C. V. Merriam,, K. Tyrrell,, and Y. Warren. 1999. Activity of gatifloxacin compared to those of five other quinolones versus aerobic and anaerobic isolates from skin and soft tissue samples of human and animal bite wound infections. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 1475 1479.
64. Goodchild, C.,, B. Dove,, D. Riley,, and A. J. Morris. 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter species. N. Z. Med. J. 114: 560 561.
65. Gootz, T. D.,, and B. A. Martin. 1991. Characterization of high-level quinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 840 845.
66. Grewal, J.,, E. K. Manavathu,, and D. E. Taylor. 1993. Effect of mutational alteration of Asn-128 in the putative GTP-binding domain of tetracycline resistance determinant Tet(O) from Campylobacter jejuni. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 2645 2649.
67. Grkovic, S.,, M. H. Brown,, and R. A. Skurray. 2002. Regulation of bacterial drug export systems. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 66: 671 701.
68. Gupta, A.,, J. M. Nelson,, T. J. Barrett,, R. V. Tauxe,, S. P. Rossiter,, C. R. Friedman,, K. W. Joyce,, K. E. Smith,, T. F. Jones,, M. A. Hawkins,, B. Shiferaw,, J. L. Beebe,, D. J. Vugia,, T. Rabatsky-Ehr,, J. A. Benson,, T. P. Root,, and F. J. Angulo. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter strains, United States, 1997-2001. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1102 1109.
69. Hakanen, A.,, J. Jalava,, P. Kotilainen,, H. Jousimies-Somer,, A. Siitonen,, and P. Huovinen. 2002. gyrA polymorphism in Campylobacter jejuni: detection of gyrA mutations in 162 C. jejuni isolates by single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 2644 2647.
70. Hakanen, A. J.,, M. Lehtopolku,, A. Siitonen,, P. Huovinen,, and P. Kotilainen. 2003. Multidrug resistance in Campylobacter jejuni strains collected from Finnish patients during 1995-2000. J. Antimicrob.Chemother. 52: 1035 1039.
71. Hanau-Bercot, B.,, I. Podglajen,, I. Casin,, and E. Collatz. 2002. An intrinsic control element for translational initiation in class 1 integrons. Mol. Microbiol. 44: 119 130.
72. Hanninen, M. L.,, P. Perko-Makela,, A. Pitkala,, and H. Rautelin. 2000. A three-year study of Campylobacter jejuni genotypes in humans with domestically acquired infections and in chicken samples from the Helsinki area. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1998 2000.
73. Hardy, D. J.,, D. M. Hensey,, J. M. Beyer,, C. Vojtko,, E. J. Mc- Donald,, and P. B. Fernandes. 1988. Comparative in vitro activities of new 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 1710 1719.
74. Hoge, C. W.,, J. M. Gambel,, A. Srijan,, C. Pitarangsi,, and P. Echeverria. 1998. Trends in antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens isolated in Thailand over 15 years. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 341 345.
75. Hook, H.,, M. B. Ekegren,, H. Ericsson,, I. Vagsholm,, and M. L. Danielsson-Tham. 2004. Genetic and epidemiological relationships among Campylobacter isolates from humans. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 36: 435 442.
76. Hosaka, M.,, T. Yasue,, H. Fukuda,, H. Tomizawa,, H. Aoyama,, and K. Hirai. 1992. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of AM-1155, a new 6-fluoro-8-methoxy quinolone. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 2108 2117.
77. Isenbarger, D. W.,, C. W. Hoge,, A. Srijan,, C. Pitarangsi,, N. Vithayasai,, L. Bodhidatta,, K. W. Hickey,, and P. D. Cam. 2002. Comparative antibiotic resistance of diarrheal pathogens from Vietnam and Thailand, 1996-1999. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 175 180.
78. Jacob, J.,, S. Evers,, K. Bischoff,, C. Carlier,, and P. Courvalin. 1994. Characterization of the sat4 gene encoding a streptothricin acetyltransferase in Campylobacter coli BE/G4. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 120: 13 17.
79. Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.,, P. M. Koenraad,, N. M. Bolder,, and R. W. Mulder. 1994. In vitro susceptibility of Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates from broilers to quinolones, ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Vet. Q. 16: 206 208.
80. Jansson, C.,, A. Franklin,, and O. Skold. 1992. Spread of a newly found trimethoprim resistance gene, dhfrIX, among porcine isolates and human pathogens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 2704 2708.
81. Jensen, L. B.,, and F. M. Aarestrup. 2001. Macrolide resistance in Campylobacter coli of animal origin in Denmark. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 371 372.
82. Kampranis, S. C.,, and A. Maxwell. 1998. The DNA gyrasequinolone complex. ATP hydrolysis and the mechanism of DNA cleavage. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 22615 22626.
83. Kapperud, G.,, G. Espeland,, E. Wahl,, A. Walde,, H. Herikstad,, S. Gustavsen,, I. Tveit,, O. Natas,, L. Bevanger,, and A. Digranes. 2003. Factors associated with increased and decreased risk of Campylobacter infection: a prospective case-control study in Norway. Am. J. Epidemiol. 158: 234 242.
84. Kassenborg, H. D.,, K. E. Smith,, D. J. Vugia,, T. Rabatsky-Ehr,, M. R. Bates,, M. A. Carter,, N. B. Dumas,, M. P. Cassidy,, N. Marano,, R. V. Tauxe,, and F. J. Angulo. 2004. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infections: eating poultry outside of the home and foreign travel are risk factors. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3): S279 S284.
85. Krausse, R.,, and U. Ullmann. 2003. In vitro activities of new fluoroquinolones against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates obtained from humans in 1980 to 1982 and 1997 to 2001. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 2946 2950.
86. Lachance, N.,, C. Gaudreau,, F. Lamothe,, and L. A. Lariviere. 1991. Role of the β-lactamase of Campylobacter jejuni in resistance β-lactam agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 813 818.
87. Lachance, N.,, C. Gaudreau,, F. Lamothe,, and F. Turgeon. 1993. Susceptibilities of β-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of Campylobacter coli β-lactam agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 1174 1176.
88. Lambert, T.,, G. Gerbaud,, P. Trieu-Cuot,, and P. Courvalin. 1985. Structural relationship between the genes encoding 3'- aminoglycoside phosphotransferases in Campylobacter and in gram-positive cocci. Ann. Inst. Pasteur Microbiol. 136B: 135 150.
89. Lariviere, L. A.,, C. L. Gaudreau,, and F. F. Turgeon. 1986. Susceptibility of clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni to twenty-five antimicrobial agents. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 18: 681 685.
90. Leclercq, R. 2002. Mechanisms of resistance to macrolides and lincosamides: nature of the resistance elements and their clinical implications. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 482 492.
91. Ledergerber, U.,, G. Regula,, R. Stephan,, J. Danuser,, B. Bissig,, and K. D. Stark. 2003. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland. BMC Public Health 3: 39.
92. Lee, M. D.,, S. Sanchez,, M. Zimmer,, U. Idris,, M. E. Berrang,, and P. F. McDermott. 2002. Class 1 integron-associated tobramycin-gentamicin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from the broiler chicken house environment. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 3660 3664.
93. Leipe, D. D.,, Y. I. Wolf,, E. V. Koonin,, and L. Aravind. 2002. Classification and evolution of P-loop GTPases and related ATPases. J. Mol. Biol. 317: 41 72.
94. Li, C. C.,, C. H. Chiu,, J. L. Wu,, Y. C. Huang,, and T. Y. Lin. 1998. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and coli by using E-test in Taiwan. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 30: 39 42.
95. Li, X. Z.,, and H. Nikaido. 2004. Efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria. Drugs 64: 159 204.
96. Lin, J.,, L. O. Michel,, and Q. Zhang. 2002. CmeABC functions as a multidrug efflux system in Campylobacter jejuni. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 2124 2131.
97. Lin, J.,, O. Sahin,, L. O. Michel,, and Q. Zhang. 2003. Critical role of multidrug efflux pump CmeABC in bile resistance and in vivo colonization of Campylobacter jejuni. Infect. Immun. 71: 4250 4259.
98. Lin, J.,, O. Sahin,, and Q. Zhang. 2003. Regulatory mechanisms of the efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter jejuni. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 293: 49.
99. Lode, H.,, and M. Allewelt. 2002. Role of newer fluoroquinolones in lower respiratory tract infections. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 50: 151 154.
100. Lodmell, J. S.,, and A. E. Dahlberg. 1997. A conformational switch in Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA during decoding of messenger RNA. Science 277: 1262 1267.
101. Luber, P.,, J. Wagner,, H. Hahn,, and E. Bartelt. 2003. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated in 1991 and 2001-2002 from poultry and humans in Berlin, Germany. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 3825 3830.
102. Lucey, B.,, B. Cryan,, F. O’Halloran,, P. G. Wall,, T. Buckley,, and S. Fanning. 2002. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species in Ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin. Vet. Rec. 151: 317 320.
103. Luo, N.,, O. Sahin,, J. Lin,, L. O. Michel,, and Q. Zhang. 2003. In vivo selection of Campylobacter isolates with high levels of fluoroquinolone resistance associated with gyrA mutations and the function of the CmeABC efflux pump. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 390 394.
104. Manavathu, E. K.,, K. Hiratsuka,, and D. E. Taylor. 1988. Nucleotide sequence analysis and expression of a tetracycline-resistance gene from Campylobacter jejuni. Gene 62: 17 26.
105. McIver, C. J.,, J. Hogan,, P. A. White,, and J. W. Tapsall. 2004. Patterns of quinolone susceptibility in Campylobacter jejuni associated with different gyrA mutations. Pathology 36: 166 169.
106. McNulty, C. A. 1987. The treatment of Campylobacter infections in man. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 19: 281 284.
107. Mégraud, F.,, and V. Prouzet-Mauléon. 2004. Évolution de la résistance des Campylobacters aux antibiotiques en France (1986-2002), p. 156 158. Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint- Maurice, France.
108. Michaud, S.,, S. Ménard,, and R. D. Arbeit. 2004. Campylobacteriosis, Eastern Townships, Québec. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1844 1847.
109. Molina, J.,, I. Casin,, P. Hausfater,, E. Giretti,, Y. Welker,, J. Decazes,, V. Garrait,, P. Lagrange,, and J. Modai. 1995. Campylobacter infections in HIV-infected patients: clinical and bacteriological features. AIDS 9: 881 885.
110. Moore, J. E.,, M. Crowe,, N. Heaney,, and E. Crothers. 2001. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from human faeces (1980-2000) and foods (1997-2000) in Northern Ireland: an update. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 48: 455 457.
111. Moore, P. B. 2001. The ribosome at atomic resolution. Biochemistry 40: 3243 3250.
112. Nachamkin, I.,, J. Engberg,, and F. M. Aarestrup,. 2000. Diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter species, p. 45 66. In I. Nachamkin, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
113. Nachamkin, I.,, H. Ung,, and M. Li. 2002. Increasing fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, Pennsylvania, USA, 1982-2001 Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 1501 1503
114. Nakajima, A.,, Y. Sugimoto,, H. Yoneyama,, and T. Nakae. 2000. Localization of the outer membrane subunit OprM of resistance-nodulation-cell division family multicomponent efflux pump in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 30064 30068.
115. Neimann, J.,, J. Engberg,, K. Mølbak,, and H. C. Wegener. 2003. A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections in Denmark. Epidemiol. Infect. 130: 353 366.
116. Neimann, J.,, K. Molbak,, J. Engberg,, F. M. Aarestrup,, and H. C. Wegener. Longer duration of illness among Campylobacter patients treated with fluoroquinolones. Presented at the 11th International Workshop on Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms, Freiburg, Germany, 1 to 5 September 2001
117. Nelson, J. M.,, K. E. Smith,, D. J. Vugia,, T. Rabatsky-Ehr,, S. D. Segler,, H. D. Kassenborg,, S. M. Zansky,, K. Joyce,, N. Marano,, R. M. Hoekstra,, and F. J. Angulo. 2004. Prolonged diarrhea due to ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infection. J. Infect. Dis. 190: 1150 1157.
118. Nielsen, E. M.,, V. Fussing,, J. Engberg,, N. L. Nielsen,, and J. Neimann. 2003. Subtypes of Campylobacter isolates from retail food compared with subtypes of human isolates from the same time period and geographical regions. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 293(Suppl. 35): 135.
119. Niwa, H.,, T. Chuma,, K. Okamoto,, and K. Itoh. 2003. Simultaneous detection of mutations associated with resistance to macrolides and quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli using a PCR-line probe assay. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 22: 374 379.
120. Ogle, J. M.,, F. V. Murphy,, M. J. Tarry,, and V. Ramakrishnan. 2002. Selection of tRNA by the ribosome requires a transition from an open to a closed form. Cell 111: 721 732.
121. O’Halloran, F.,, B. Lucey,, B. Cryan,, T. Buckley,, and S. Fanning. 2004. Molecular characterization of class 1 integrons from Irish thermophilic Campylobacter spp. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53: 952 957.
122. Osterlund, A.,, M. Hermann,, and G. Kahlmeter. 2003. Antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter jejuni/coli strains acquired in Sweden and abroad: a longitudinal study. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 35: 478 481.
123. Ouellette, M.,, G. Gerbaud,, T. Lambert,, and P. Courvalin. 1987. Acquisition by a Campylobacter-like strain of aphA- 1, a kanamycin resistance determinant from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31: 1021 1026.
124. Page, W. J.,, G. Huyer,, M. Huyer,, and E. A. Worobec. 1989. Characterization of the porins of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and implications for antibiotic susceptibility. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 297 303.
125. Parkhill, J.,, B. W. Wren,, K. Mungall,, J. M. Ketley,, C. Churcher,, D. Basham,, T. Chillingworth,, R. M. Davies,, T. Feltwell,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, A. V. Karlyshev,, S. Moule,, M. J. Pallen,, C. W. Penn,, M. A. Quail,, M. A. Rajandream,, K. M. Rutherford,, A. H. M. vanVliet,, S. Whitehead,, and B. G Barrell. 2000. The genome sequence of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni reveals hypervariable sequences. Nature 403: 665 668.
126. Payot, S.,, L. Avrain,, C. Magras,, K. Praud,, A. Cloeckaert,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2004. Relative contribution of target gene mutation and efflux to fluoroquinolone and erythromycin resistance, in French poultry and pig isolates of Campylobacter coli. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 23: 468 472.
127. Payot, S.,, A. Cloeckaert,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2002. Selection and characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of Campylobacter jejuni using enrofloxacin. Microb. Drug Resist. 8: 335 343.
128. Pezzotti, G.,, A. Serafin,, I. Luzzi,, R. Mioni,, M. Milan,, and R. Perin. 2003. Occurrence and resistance to antibiotics of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in animals and meat in northeastern Italy. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 82: 281 287.
129. Piddock, L. J.,, V. Ricci,, L. Pumbwe,, M. J. Everett,, and D. J. Griggs. 2003. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter species from man and animals: detection of mutations in topoisomerase genes. J. Antimicrob.Chemother. 51: 19 26.
130. Piddock, L. J. V. 1997. Quinolone resistance and Campylobacter, p. 191-199. In The Medical Impact of the Use of Antimicrobial Use in Food Animals. Report and Proceedings of a WHO Meeting, Berlin, Germany, 13- 17 October 1997. Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
131. Pinto-Alphandary, H.,, C. Mabilat,, and P. Courvalin. 1990. Emergence of aminoglycoside resistance genes aadA and aadE in the genus Campylobacter. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 1294 1296.
132. Pioletti, M.,, F. Schlunzen,, J. Harms,, R. Zarivach,, M. Gluhmann,, H. Avila,, A. Bashan,, H. Bartels,, T. Auerbach,, C. Jacobi,, T. Hartsch,, A. Yonath,, and F. Franceschi. 2001. Crystal structures of complexes of the small ribosomal subunit with tetracycline, edeine and IF3. EMBO J. 20: 1829 1839.
133. Poole, K. 2004. Efflux-mediated multiresistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10: 12 26.
134. Potter, R. C.,, J. B. Kaneene,, and W. N. Hall. 2003. Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter jejuni infections in rural Michigan: a prospective case-control study. Am. J. Public Health 93: 2118 2123.
135. Pumbwe, L.,, and L. J. Piddock. 2002. Identification and molecular characterisation of CmeB, a Campylobacter jejuni multidrug efflux pump. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 206: 185 189.
136. Pumbwe, L.,, L. P. Randall,, M. J. Woodward,, and L. J. Piddock. 2004. Expression of the efflux pump genes cmeB, cmeF and the porin gene porA in multiple-antibioticresistant Campylobacter jejuni. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54: 341 347.
137. Putnam, S. D.,, R. W. Frenck,, M. S. Riddle,, A. El Gendy,, N. N. Taha,, B. T. Pittner,, R. Abu-Elyazeed,, T. F. Wierzba,, M. R. Rao,, S. J. Savarino,, and J. D. Clemens. 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility trends in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from a rural Egyptian pediatric population with diarrhea. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 47: 601 608.
138. Rather, P. N.,, H. Munayyer,, P. A. Mann,, R. S. Hare,, G. H. Miller,, and K. J. Shaw. 1992. Genetic analysis of bacterial acetyltransferases: identification of amino acids determining the specificities of the aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase Ib and IIa proteins. J. Bacteriol. 174: 3196 3203.
139. Rautelin, H.,, A. Vierikko,, M. L. Hanninen,, and M. Vaara. 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter strains isolated from Finnish subjects infected domestically or from those infected abroad. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 102 105.
140. Rees, R. E.,, and R. F. Retts. 1993. Handbook of Antibiotics. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, Mass.
141. Rivera, M. J.,, J. Castillo,, C. Martin,, M. Navarro,, and R. Gomez-Lus. 1986. Aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases APH(3')-IV and APH(3'') synthesized by a strain of Campylobacter coli. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 18: 153 158.
142. Roberts, M. C. 1994. Epidemiology of tetracycline-resistance determinants. Trends Microbiol. 2: 353 357.
143. Ronner, A. C.,, E. O. Engvall,, L. Andersson,, and B. Kaijser. 2004. Species identification by genotyping and determination of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from humans and chickens in Sweden. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 96: 173 179.
144. Ruiz, J.,, P. Goni,, F. Marco,, F. Gallardo,, B. Mirelis,, T. Jimenez De Anta,, and J. Vila. 1998. Increased resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni: a genetic analysis of gyrA gene mutations in quinolone-resistant clinical isolates. Microbiol. Immunol. 42: 223 226.
145. Sáenz, Y.,, M. Zarazaga,, M. Lantero,, M. J. Gastanares,, F. Baquero,, and C. Torres. 2000. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter strains isolated from animals, foods, and humans in Spain in 1997-1998. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 267 271
146. Sanchez-Pescador, R.,, J. T. Brown,, M. Roberts,, and M. S. Urdea. 1988. Homology of the TetM with translational elongation factors: implications for potential modes of tetM-conferred tetracycline resistance. Nucleic Acids Res. 16: 1218
147. Schnappinger, D.,, and W. Hillen. 1996. Tetracyclines: antibiotic action, uptake, and resistance mechanisms. Arch. Microbiol. 165: 359 369.
148. Schönberg-Norio, D.,, J. Takkinen,, M.-L. Hänninen,, M.-L. Katila,, S.-S. Kaukoranta,, L. Mattila,, and H. Rautelin. 2004. Swimming and Campylobacter infections. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10: 1474 1477.
149. Schwarz, S.,, C. Kehrenberg,, B. Doublet,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2004. Molecular basis of bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 28: 519 542.
150. Segreti, J.,, T. D. Gootz,, L. J. Goodman,, G. W. Parkhurst,, J. P. Quinn,, B. A. Martin,, and G. M. Trenholme. 1992. High-level quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni. J. Infect. Dis. 165: 667 670.
151. Sharma, H.,, L. Unicomb,, W. Forbes,, S. Djordjevic,, M. Valcanis,, C. Dalton,, and J. Ferguson. 2003. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from humans in the Hunter Region, New South Wales. Commun. Dis. Intell. 27(Suppl.): 80 88.
152. Smith, K. E.,, J. M. Besser,, C. W. Hedberg,, F. T. Leano,, J. B. Bender,, J. H. Wicklund,, B. P. Johnson,, K.A. Moore,, and M. T. Osterholm. 1999. Quinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections in Minnesota, 1992-1998. N. Engl. J. Med. 340: 1525 1532.
153. Spahn, C. M.,, G. Blaha,, R. K. Agrawal,, P. Penczek,, R. A. Grassucci,, C. A. Trieber,, S. R. Connell,, D. E. Taylor,, K. H. Nierhaus,, and J. Frank. 2001. Localization of the ribosomal protection protein Tet(O) on the ribosome and the mechanism of tetracycline resistance. Mol. Cell 7: 1037 1045.
154. Spahn, C. M.,, and C. D. Prescott. 1996. Throwing a spanner in the works: antibiotics and the translation apparatus. J. Mol. Med. 74: 423 439.
155. Spahn, C. M.,, M. A. Schafer,, A. A. Krayevsky,, and K. H. Nierhaus. 1996. Conserved nucleotides of 23 S rRNA located at the ribosomal peptidyltransferase center. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32857 32862.
156. Spratt, B. G., 1989. Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics mediated by alterations of penicillin-binding proteins., p. 77 100. In L. E. Bryan (ed.), Microbial Resistance to Drugs. Springer- Verlag KG, Berlin, Germany
157. Steinbruckner, B.,, F. Ruberg,, M. Vetter-Knoll,, and M. Kist, Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated in Freiburg from 1992-2000. Presented at the 11th International Workshop on Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms, Freiburg, Germany, 1 to 5 September 2001
158. Stern, N. J.,, K. L. Hiett,, G. A. Alfredsson,, K. G. Kristinsson,, J. Reiersen,, H. Hardardottir,, H. Briem,, E. Gunnarsson,, F. Georgsson,, R. Lowman,, E. Berndtson,, A. M. Lammerding,, G. M. Paoli,, and M. T. Musgrove. 2003. Campylobacter spp. in Icelandic poultry operations and human disease. Epidemiol. Infect. 130: 23 32.
159. Suarez, G.,, and D. Nathans. 1965. Inhibition of aminoacyl tRNA binding to ribosomes by tetracycline. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 18: 743 750.
160. Tajada, P.,, J. L. Gomez Graces,, J. I. Alos,, D. Balas,, and R. Cogollos. 1996. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to 12 β-lactam agents and combinations with β-lactamase inhibitors. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40: 1924 1925
161. Talsma, E.,, W. G. Goettsch,, H. L. Nieste,, P. M. Schrijnemakers,, and M. J. Sprenger. 1999. Resistance in Campylobacter species: increased resistance to fluoroquinolones and seasonal variation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 845 848.
162. Taylor, D. E., 1981. Campylobacter jejuni: characteristic features of the organism and identification of transmissible plasmids in tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates, p. 61 70. In S. B. Levy,, R. C. Clowes,, and E. L. Koenig (ed.), Molecular Biology, Pathogenicity, and Ecology of Bacterial Plasmids. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, N.Y.
163. Taylor, D. E. 1986. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter jejuni: expression in Escherichia coli and identification of homology with streptococcal class M determinant. J. Bacteriol. 165: 1037 1039.
164. Taylor, D. E., 1992. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin, p. 74 86. In I. Nachamkin,, M. J. Blaser,, and L. S. Tompkins (ed.), Campylobacter jejuni: Current Status and Future Trends. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
165. Taylor, D. E.,, and N. Chang. 1991. In vitro susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to azithromycin and erythromycin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 1917 1918
166. Taylor, D. E.,, and A. Chau. 1996. Tetracycline resistance mediated by ribosomal protection. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40: 1 5.
167. Taylor, D. E.,, and A. S. Chau. 1997. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gyrA gene from Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus ATCC 27374 and characterization of ciprofloxacin-resistant laboratory and clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 665 671.
168. Taylor, D. E.,, R. S. Garner,, and B. J. Allan. 1983. Characterization of tetracycline resistance plasmids from Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 24: 930 935.
169. Taylor, D. E.,, Z. Ge,, D. Purych,, T. Lo,, and K. Hiratsuka. 1997. Cloning and sequence analysis of two copies of a 23S rRNA gene from Helicobacter pylori and association of clarithromycin resistance with 23S rRNA mutations. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 2621 2628.
170. Taylor, D. E.,, L. J. Jerome,, J. Grewal,, and N. Chang. 1995. Tet(O), a protein that mediates ribosomal protection to tetracycline, binds, and hydrolyses GTP. Can. J. Microbiol. 41: 965 970.
171. Taylor, D. E.,, L. K. Ng,, and H. Lior. 1985. Susceptibility of Campylobacter species to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and other DNA gyrase inhibitors. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28: 708 710.
172. Taylor, D. E.,, C. A. Trieber,, G. Trescher,, and M. Bekkering. 1998. Host mutations (miaA and rpsL) reduce tetracycline resistance mediated by Tet(O) and Tet(M). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 59 64.
173. Taylor, D. E.,, W. Yan,, L. K. Ng,, E. K. Manavathu,, and P. Courvalin. 1988. Genetic characterization of kanamycin resistance in Campylobacter coli. Ann. Inst. Pasteur Microbiol. 139: 665 676.
174. Tee, W.,, and A. Mijch. 1998. Campylobacter jejuni bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected patients: comparison of clinical features and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 91 96.
175. Tee, W.,, A. Mijch,, E. Wright,, and A. Yung. 1995. Emergence of multidrug resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from three patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 634 638.
176. Tenkate, T. D.,, and R. J. Stafford. 2001. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in infants and young children: a matched case-control study. Epidemiol. Infect. 127: 399 404.
177. Tenover, F. C.,, M. A. Bronsdon,, K. P. Gordon,, and J. J. Plorde. 1983. Isolation of plasmids encoding tetracycline resistance from Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from simians. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 23: 320 322.
178. Tenover, F. C.,, and P. M. Elvrum. 1988. Detection of two different kanamycin resistance genes in naturally occurring isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 1170 1173.
179. Tenover, F. C.,, C. L. Fennell,, L. Lee,, and D. J. LeBlanc. 1992. Characterization of two plasmids from Campylobacter jejuni isolates that carry the aphA-7 kanamycin resistance determinant. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 712 716.
180. Tenover, F. C.,, S. Williams,, K. P. Gordon,, C. Nolan,, and J. J. Plorde. 1985. Survey of plasmids and resistance factors in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27: 37 41.
181. Tjaniadi, P.,, M. Lesmana,, D. Subekti,, N. Machpud,, S. Komalarini,, W. Santoso,, C. H. Simanjuntak,, N. Punjabi,, J. R. Cambell,, K. Alexander,, H. J. I. Beecham,, A. L. Corwin,, and B. A. Oyofo. 2003. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial pathogens associated with diarrheal patients in Indonesia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68: 666 670.
182. Trieber, C. A.,, N. Burkhardt,, K. H. Nierhaus,, and D. E. Taylor. 1998. Ribosomal protection from tetracycline mediated by Tet(O): Tet(O) interaction with ribosomes is GTP-dependent. Biol. Chem. 379: 847 855.
183. Trieber, C. A.,, and D. E. Taylor,. 1999. Erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter, p. 3. In H. L. T. Mobley,, I. Nachamkin,, and D. McGee (ed.), Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms. University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.
184. Trieber, C. A.,, and D. E. Taylor,. 2000. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter, p. 455 464. In I. Nachamkin, and M. J. Blaser (ed.), Campylobacter, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
185. Tseng, T. T.,, K. S. Gratwick,, J. Kollman,, D. Park,, D. H. Nies,, A. Goffeau,, and M. H. Saier, Jr. 1999. The RND permease superfamily: an ancient, ubiquitous and diverse family that includes human disease and development proteins. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1: 107 125.
186. Tuz-Dzib, F.,, M. L. Guerrero,, L. E. Cervantes,, L. K. Pickering,, and G. M. Ruiz-Palacios. 1999. Increased incidence of quinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni in Mexico. Abstr. 10th Int. Workshop Campylobacter, Helicobacter & Relat. Org.
187. Unicomb, L.,, J. Ferguson,, T. V. Riley,, and P. Collignon. 2003. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter absent from isolates, Australia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 1482 1483.
188. Uzunovic-Kamberovic, S. 2003. Antibiotic susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli human isolates from Bosnia and Herzegovina. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51: 1049 1051.
189. Vacher, S.,, A. Menard,, E. Bernard,, and F. Megraud. 2003. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for detection of point mutations associated with macrolide resistance in Campylobacter spp. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 1125 1128.
190. Vandenberg, O.,, Y. Glupczynski,, S. Ibekwem,, K. Houf,, A. Dediste,, N. Douat,, P. Retore,, G. Zissis,, and J. P. Butzler, 2003. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species isolated from humans in 1996 to 2002 in Belgium. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 293(Suppl. 35): 1 148.
191. Vellinga, A.,, and F. Van Loock. 2002. The dioxin crisis as experiment to determine poultry-related Campylobacter enteritis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 19 22.
192. Versalovic, J.,, D. Shortridge,, K. Kibler,, M. V. Griffy,, J. Beyer,, R. K. Flamm,, S. K. Tanaka,, D. Y. Graham,, and M. F. Go. 1996. Mutations in 23S rRNA are associated with clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40: 477 480.
193. Wagner, J.,, M. Jabbusch,, M. Eisenblatter,, H. Hahn,, C. Wendt,, and R. Ignatius. 2003. Susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Germany to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 2358 2361.
194. Wang, G.,, and D. E. Taylor. 1998. Site-specific mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori confer two types of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 1952 1958.
195. Wang, Y.,, W. M. Huang,, and D. E. Taylor. 1993. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Campylobacter jejuni gyrA gene and characterization of quinolone resistance mutations. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 457 463.
196. Wang, Y.,, and D. E. Taylor. 1990. Chloramphenicol resistance in Campylobacter coli: nucleotide sequence, expression, and cloning vector construction. Gene 94: 23 28.
197. Wang, Y.,, and D. E. Taylor. 1990. Natural transformation in Campylobacter species. J. Bacteriol. 172: 949 955.
198. Wang, Y.,, and D. E. Taylor. 1991. A DNA sequence upstream of the tet(O) gene is required for full expression of tetracycline resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 2020 2025.
199. Wegener, H. C.,, and J. Engberg,. 2003. Veterinary use of quinolones and impact on human infections, p. 387 403. In D. C. Hooper, and E. Rubinstein (ed.), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
200. Whyte, P.,, K. McGill,, D. Cowley,, R. H. Madden,, L. Moran,, P. Scates,, C. Carroll,, A. O’Leary,, S. Fanning,, J. D. Collins,, E. McNamara,, J. E. Moore,, and M. Cormican. 2004. Occurrence of Campylobacter in retail foods in Ireland. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 95: 111 118.
201. Wickins, H. V.,, R. Thwaites,, and J. A. Frost. 2001. Drug resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in England & Wales 1993-2001. Presented at the 11th International Workshop on Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms, Freiburg, Germany, 1 to 5 September 2001.
202. Willmott, C. J.,, and A. Maxwell. 1993. A single point mutation in the DNA gyrase A protein greatly reduces binding of fluoroquinolones to the gyrase-DNA complex. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 126 127.
203. Wilson, I. G. 2003. Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter in raw retail chickens and imported chicken portions. Epidemiol. Infect. 131: 1181 1186.
204. Wistrom, J.,, and S. R. Norrby. 1995. Fluoroquinolones and bacterial enteritis, when and for whom? J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36: 23 39.
205. Yan, W.,, and D. E. Taylor. 1991. Characterization of erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 1989 1996.
206. Zhang, Q.,, J. Lin,, and S. Pereira. 2003. Fluoroquinoloneresistant Campylobacter in animal reservoirs: dynamics of development, resistance mechanisms and ecological fitness. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 4: 63 71.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Erythromycin or azithromycin resistance rates among , , and and combined isolated from humans worldwide since 1997

Citation: Engberg J, Gerner-Smidt P, Keelan M, Taylor D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter, p 269-292. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Antibiotics and their resistance mechanisms in Campylobacterspp.

Citation: Engberg J, Gerner-Smidt P, Keelan M, Taylor D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter, p 269-292. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Antimicrobial agents transported by CmeABC in C. jejuni

Citation: Engberg J, Gerner-Smidt P, Keelan M, Taylor D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter, p 269-292. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Studies evaluating the duration of illness in patients infected with quinolone-resistant strains versus quinolone-susceptible strains

Citation: Engberg J, Gerner-Smidt P, Keelan M, Taylor D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter, p 269-292. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Campylobacter

Citation: Engberg J, Gerner-Smidt P, Keelan M, Taylor D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter, p 269-292. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch16

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error