Chapter 18 : Enterococcus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Enterococcus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817534/9781555813062_Chap18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817534/9781555813062_Chap18-2.gif


This chapter focuses on the presence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in enterococci of animal origin and the possible spread of resistance between the animal and human reservoir, probably through the food chain. Some species, such as Enterococcus gallinarum and E. casseliflavus, are motile. At least 23 distinct Enterococcus species are recognized and new species continue to be identified. The defined species have been separated into five groups on the basis of acid formation in mannitol and sorbose broths and hydrolysis of arginine. Identification of the different Enterococcus species can be done by conventional physiological tests, by commercial systems, or by molecular methods. The major natural habitat of organisms appears to be the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, where they make up a significant portion of the normal aerobic gut flora. Some Enterococcus species are host specific, while others are more broadly distributed. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance represents the greatest threat to the treatment of human enterococcal infections. The chapter also focuses on the antimicrobial resistance selected for animals that can be transferred to humans, causing treatment failures. Tetracycline resistance is probably the most common resistance phenotype in enterococci from food. Enterococci have an ability to become resistant to antimicrobials. The role of enterococci in disease raises valid concerns regarding their safety for use in foods or as probiotics. If Enterococcus strains are selected for use as starter or probiotic cultures, ideally such strains should harbor no virulence determinants and should be susceptible to clinically relevant antibiotics.

Citation: Simjee S, Jensen L, Donabedian S, Zervos M. 2006. Enterococcus, p 315-328. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch18
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Aarestrup, F. M. 1995. Occurrence of glycopeptide resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolates from conventional and ecological poultry farms. Microb. Drug Resist. 1:255257.
2. Aarestrup, F. M.,, Y. Agerso,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, M. Madsen,, and L. B. Jensen. 2000. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from humans in the community, broilers, and pigs in Denmark. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 37:127137.
3.Reference deleted.
4. Aarestrup, F. M.,, P. Butaye,, and W. Whitte,. 2002. Nonhuman reservoirs of enterococci, p. 5599. In M. S. Gilmore,, D. B. Clewell,, P. Courvalin,, G. M. Dunny,, B. E. Murray,, and L. B. Rice (ed.), The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
5. Aarestrup, F. M.,, H. Hasman,, L. B. Jensen,, M. Moreno,, I. A. Herrero,, L. Dominguez,, M. Finn,, and A. Franklin. 2002. Antimicrobial resistance among enterococci from pigs in three European countries. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:41274129.
6.Reference deleted.
7.Reference deleted.
8. Aarestrup, F. M.,, and L. B. Jensen. 2000. Presence of variations in ribosomal protein L16 corresponding to susceptibility of enterococci to oligosaccharides (avilamycin and evernimicin). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:34253427.
9. Aarestrup, F. M.,, and P. M. McNicholas. 2002. Incidence of high-level evernimicin resistance in Enterococcus faecium among food animals and humans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:30883090.
10. Aarestrup, F. M.,, A. M. Seyfarth,, H. D. Emborg,, K. Pedersen,, R. S. Hendriksen,, and F. Bager. 2001. Effect of abolishment of the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion on occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal enterococci from food animals in Denmark. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:20542059.
11. Aarestrup, F. M.,, H. C. Wegener,, V. T. Rosdahl,, and N. E. Jensen. 1995. Staphylococcal and other bacterial species associated with intramammary infections in Danish dairy herds. Acta Vet. Scand. 36:475487.
12. Andrighetto, C.,, E. Knijff,, A. Lombardi,, S. Torriani,, M. Vancanneyt,, K. Kersters,, J. Swings,, and F. Dellaglio. 2001. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of enterococci isolated from Italian cheeses. J. Dairy Res. 68:303316.
13.Anonymous. 1999. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System report, data summary from January 1990-May 1999, issued June 1999. Am. J. Infect. Control 27:520532.
14.Reference deleted.
15.Reference deleted.
16.Reference deleted.
17.Reference deleted.
18. Bager, F.,, M. Madsen,, J. Christensen,, and F. M. Aarestrup. 1997. Avoparcin used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on Danish poultry and pig farms. Prev. Vet. Med. 31: 95112.
19. Bates, J. 1997. Epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in the community and the relevance of farm animals to human infection. J. Hosp. Infect. 37:89101.
20. Bates, J.,, J. Z. Jordens,, and D. T. Griffiths. 1994. Farm animals as a putative reservoir for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infection in man. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 34:507514.
21. Bengmark, S. 2000. Colonic food: pre- and probiotics. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95:S5S7.
22. Bhakdi, S.,, T. Klonisch,, P. Nuber,, and W. Fischer. 1991. Stimulation of monokine production by lipoteichoic acids. Infect. Immun. 59:46144620.
23. Bonten, M. J.,, S. Slaughter,, A. W. Ambergen,, M. K. Hayden,, J. van Voorhis,, C. Nathan,, and R. A. Weinstein. 1998. The role of “colonization pressure” in the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: an important infection control variable. Arch. Intern. Med. 158:11271132.
24. Bonten, M. J.,, R. Willems,, and R. A. Weinstein. 2001. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: why are they here, and where do they come from? Lancet Infect. Dis. 1:314325.
25. Borgen, K.,, M. Sorum,, Y. Wasteson,, H. Kruse,, and H. Oppegaard. 2002. Genetic linkage between erm(B) and vanA in Enterococcus hirae of poultry origin. Microb. Drug Resist. 8: 363368.
26. Boulanger, J. M.,, E. L. Ford-Jones,, and A. G. Matlow. 1991. Enterococcal bacteremia in a pediatric institution: a four-year review. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:847856.
27. Bover-Cid, S.,, M. Hugas,, M. Izquierdo-Pulido,, and M. C. Vidal-Carou. 2001. Amino acid-decarboxylase activity of bacteria isolated from fermented pork sausages. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 66:185189.
28. Boyce, J. M.,, S. M. Opal,, J. W. Chow,, M. J. Zervos,, G. Potter- Bynoe,, C. B. Sherman,, R. L. Romulo,, S. Fortna,, and A. A. Medeiros. 1994. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium with transferable vanB class vancomycin resistance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:11481153.
29. Bryan, C. S.,, K. L. Reynolds,, and J. J. Brown. 1985. Mortality associated with enterococcal bacteremia. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 160:557561.
30. Busani, L.,, M. Del Grosso,, C. Paladini,, C. Graziani,, A. Pantosti,, F. Biavasco,, and A. Caprioli. 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility of vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant enterococci isolated in Italy from raw meat products, farm animals, and human infections. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 97: 1722.
31. Butaye, P.,, L. A. Devriese,, and F. Haesebrouck. 2003. Antimicrobial growth promoters used in animal feed: effects of less well known antibiotics on gram-positive bacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16:175188.
32. Cardona, C. J.,, A. A. Bickford,, B. R. Charlton,, and G. L. Cooper. 1993. Enterococcus durans infection in young chickens associated with bacteremia and encephalomalacia. Avian Dis. 37:234239.
33. Carpenter, C. F.,, and H. F. Chambers. 2004. Daptomycin: another novel agent for treating infections due to drug-resistant gram-positive pathogens. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:9941000.
34. Carvalho, M. G.,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, R. E. Morey,, P. L. Shewmaker,, L. M. Teixeira,, and R. R. Facklam. 2004. Characterization of three new enterococcal species, Enterococcus sp. nov. CDC PNS-E1, Enterococcus sp. nov. CDC PNS-E2, and Enterococcus sp. nov. CDC PNS-E3, isolated from human clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:11921198.
35. Chang, S.,, D. M. Sievert,, J. C. Hageman,, M. L. Boulton,, F. C. Tenover,, F. P. Downes,, S. Shah,, J. T. Rudrik,, G. R. Pupp,, W. J. Brown,, D. Cardo,, and S. K. Fridkin. 2003. Infection with vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus containing the vanA resistance gene. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:13421347.
36. Cheon, D. S.,, and C. Chae. 1996. Outbreak of diarrhea associated with Enterococcus durans in piglets. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 8:123124.
37. Chow, J. W.,, S. M. Donahedian,, and M. J. Zervos. 1997. Emergence of increased resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin during therapy for Enterococcus faecium bacteremia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:9091.
38. Chow, J. W.,, L. A. Thal,, M. B. Perri,, J. A. Vazquez,, S. M. Donabedian,, D. B. Clewell,, and M. J. Zervos. 1993. Plasmid-associated hemolysin and aggregation substance production contribute to virulence in experimental enterococcal endocarditis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:24742477.
39. Clewell, D. B. 1990. Movable genetic elements and antibiotic resistance in enterococci. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 9:90102.
40. D’Agata, E. M.,, W. K. Green,, G. Schulman,, H. Li,, Y. W. Tang,, and W. Schaffner. 2001. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci among chronic hemodialysis patients: a prospective study of acquisition. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:2329.
41. De Boever, E. H.,, D. B. Clewell,, and C. M. Fraser. 2000. Enterococcus faecalis conjugative plasmid pAM373: complete nucleotide sequence and genetic analyses of sex pheromone response. Mol. Microbiol. 37:13271341.
42. del Campo, R.,, P. Ruiz-Garbajosa,, M. P. Sanchez-Moreno,, F. Baquero,, C. Torres,, R. Canton,, and T. M. Coque. 2003. Antimicrobial resistance in recent fecal enterococci from healthy volunteers and food handlers in Spain: genes and phenotypes. Microb. Drug Resist. 9:4760.
43. Delsol, A. A.,, L. Randall,, S. Cooles,, M. J. Woodward,, J. Sunderland,, and J. M. Roe. 2005. Effect of the growth promoter avilamycin on emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria in the pig. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98: 564571.
44. Donabedian, S. M.,, L. A. Thal,, E. Hershberger,, M. B. Perri,, J. W. Chow,, P. Bartlett,, R. Jones,, K. Joyce,, S. Rossiter,, K. Gay,, J. Johnson,, C. Mackinson,, E. Debess,, J. Madden,, F. Angulo,, and M. J. Zervos. 2003. Molecular characterization of gentamicin-resistant enterococci in the United States: evidence of spread from animals to humans through food. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:11091113.
45.Reference deleted.
46. Dowzicky, M.,, G. H. Talbot,, C. Feger,, P. Prokocimer,, J. Etienne,, and R. Leclercq. 2000. Characterization of isolates associated with emerging resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid) during a worldwide clinical program. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 37:5762.
47. Eaton, T. J.,, and M. J. Gasson. 2001. Molecular screening of Enterococcus virulence determinants and potential for genetic exchange between food and medical isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:16281635.
48. Ehrenfeld, E. E.,, R. E. Kessler,, and D. B. Clewell. 1986. Identification of pheromone-induced surface proteins in Streptococcus faecalis and evidence of a role for lipoteichoic acid in formation of mating aggregates. J. Bacteriol. 168:612.
49. Ember, J. A.,, and T. E. Hugli. 1989. Characterization of the human neutrophil response to sex pheromones from Streptococcus faecalis. Am. J. Pathol. 134:797805.
50. Facklam, R. R.,, Carvalho, M. D. G. S. and L. M. Teixeira. 2002. History, taxonomy, biochemical characteristics, and antibiotic susceptibility testing of enterococci, p. 154. In M. S. Gilmore,, D. B. Clewell,, P. Courvalin,, G. M. Dunny,, B. E. Murray,, and L. B. Rice (ed.), The Enterococci: Pathogenesis,Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
51. Flannagan, S. E.,, J. W. Chow,, S. M. Donabedian,, W. J. Brown,, M. B. Perri,, M. J. Zervos,, Y. Ozawa,, and D. B. Clewell. 2003. Plasmid content of a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolate from a patient also colonized by Staphylococcus aureus with a VanA phenotype. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:39543959.
52. Franz, C. M.,, W. H. Holzapfel,, and M. E. Stiles. 1999. Enterococci at the crossroads of food safety? Int. J. Food Microbiol. 47:124.
53.Reference deleted.
54. Franz, C. M.,, A. B. Muscholl-Silberhorn,, N. M. Yousif,, M. Vancanneyt,, J. Swings,, and W. H. Holzapfel. 2001. Incidence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from food. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:43854389.
55. Frei, A.,, D. Goldenberger,, and M. Teuber. 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility of intestinal bacteria from Swiss poultry flocks before the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 24:116121.
56. Galli, D.,, and R. Wirth. 1991. Comparative analysis of Enterococcus faecalis sex pheromone plasmids identifies a single homologous DNA region which codes for aggregation substance. J. Bacteriol. 173:30293033.
57. Galvez, A.,, M. Maqueda,, M. Martinez-Bueno,, and E. Valdivia. 1991. Permeation of bacterial cells, permeation of cytoplasmic and artificial membrane vesicles, and channel formation on lipid bilayers by peptide antibiotic AS-48. J. Bacteriol. 173: 886892.
58. Gilmore, M. S.,, and J. J. Ferretti. 2003. Microbiology. The thin line between gut commensal and pathogen. Science 299:19992002.
59. Giraffa, G. 2002. Enterococci from foods. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26:163171.
60.Reference deleted.
61. Giraffa, G. 2003. Functionality of enterococci in dairy products. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 88:215222.
62. Gonzales, R. D.,, P. C. Schreckenberger,, M. B. Graham,, S. Kelkar,, K. DenBesten,, and J. P. Quinn. 2001. Infections due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium resistant to linezolid. Lancet 357:1179.
63. Graninger, W.,, and R. Ragette. 1992. Nosocomial bacteremia due to Enterococcus faecalis without endocarditis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:4957.
64. Guardabassi, L.,, and A. Dalsgaard. 2004. Occurrence, structure, and mobility of Tn1546-like elements in environmental isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:984990.
65. Gullberg, R. M.,, S. R. Homann,, and J. P. Phair. 1989. Enterococcal bacteremia: analysis of 75 episodes. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11:7485.
66. Hammerum, A. M.,, and L. B. Jensen. 2002. Prevalence of esp, encoding the enterococcal surface protein, in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from hospital patients, poultry, and pigs in Denmark. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:4396.
67. Hammerum, A. M.,, C. H. Lester,, J. Neimann,, L. J. Porsbo,, K. E. Olsen,, L. B. Jensen,, H. D. Emborg,, H. C. Wegener,, and N. Frimodt-Moller. 2004. A vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate from a Danish healthy volunteer, detected 7 years after the ban of avoparcin, is possibly related to pig isolates. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53:547549.
68. Hayes, J. R.,, L. L. English,, L. E. Carr,, D. D. Wagner,, and S. W. Joseph. 2004. Multiple-antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from commercial poultry production environments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:60056011.
69. Herrero, I. A.,, J. F. Fernandez-Garayzabal,, M. A. Moreno,, and L. Dominguez. 2004. Dogs should be included in surveillance programs for vancomycin-resistant enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:13841385.
70. Hershberger, E.,, S. Donabedian,, K. Konstantinou,, and M. J. Zervos. 2004. Quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance in gram-positive bacteria: mechanism of resistance and epidemiology. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:9298.
71. Huys, G.,, K. D’Haene,, J. M. Collard,, and J. Swings. 2004. Prevalence and molecular characterization of tetracycline resistance in Enterococcus isolates from food. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:15551562.
72. Ieven, M.,, E. Vercauteren,, C. Lammens,, D. Ursi,, and H. Goossens. 2001. Significant decrease of GRE colonization rate in hospitalized patients after avoparcin ban in animals, abstr. LB-8. Abstr. 41st Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
73. Jackson, C. R.,, P. J. Fedorka-Cray,, and J. B. Barrett. 2004. Use of a genus- and species-specific multiplex PCR for identification of enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:35583565.
74. Jayarao, B. M.,, J. J. Dore, Jr., and S. P. Oliver. 1992. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA of Streptococcus and Enterococcus species of bovine origin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:22352240.
75. Jayarao, B. M.,, and S. P. Oliver. 1992. Aminoglycoside-resistant Streptococcus and Enterococcus species isolated from bovine mammary secretions. J. Dairy Sci. 75:991997.
76. Jensen, L. B. 1998. Differences in the occurrence of two base pair variants of Tn1546 from vancomycin-resistant enterococci from humans, pigs, and poultry. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:24632464.
77. Jensen, L. B.,, Y. Agerso,, and G. Sengelov. 2002. Presence of erm genes among macrolide-resistant Gram-positive bacteria isolated from Danish farm soil. Environ. Int. 28:487491.
78. Jensen, L. B.,, P. Ahrens,, L. Dons,, R. N. Jones,, A. M. Hammerum,, and F. M. Aarestrup. 1998. Molecular analysis of Tn1546 in Enterococcus faecium isolated from animals and humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:437442.
79. Jensen, L. B.,, A. M. Hammerum,, F. Bager,, and F. M. Aarestrup. 2002. Streptogramin resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolated from production animals in Denmark in 1997. Microb. Drug Resist. 8:369374.
80.Reference deleted.
81. Jett, B. D.,, M. M. Huycke,, and M. S. Gilmore. 1994. Virulence of enterococci. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7:462478.
82. Jett, B. D.,, H. G. Jensen,, R. E. Nordquist,, and M. S. Gilmore. 1992. Contribution of the pAD1-encoded cytolysin to the severity of experimental Enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis. Infect. Immun. 60:24452452.
83. Jones, W. G.,, P. S. Barie,, R. W. Yurt,, and C. W. Goodwin. 1986. Enterococcal burn sepsis. A highly lethal complication in severely burned patients. Arch. Surg. 121:649653.
84. Kak, V.,, and J. W. Chow,. 2002. Acquired antibiotic resistance in enterococci, p. 355383. In M. S. Gilmore,, D. B. Clewell,, P. Courvalin,, G. M. Dunny,, B. E. Murray,, and L. B. Rice (ed.), The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
85. Klare, I.,, D. Badstubner,, C. Konstabel,, G. Bohme,, H. Claus,, and W. Witte. 1999. Decreased incidence of VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from poultry meat and from fecal samples of humans in the community after discontinuation of avoparcin usage in animal husbandry. Microb. Drug Resist. 5:4552.
86. Klare, I.,, H. Heier,, H. Claus,, R. Reissbrodt,, and W. Witte. 1995. vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium from animal husbandry. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 125:165171.
87. Klare, I.,, H. Heier,, H. Claus,, and W. Witte. 1993. Environmental strains of Enterococcus faecium with inducible high-level resistance to glycopeptides. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 106: 2329.
88. Klein, G. 2003. Taxonomy, ecology and antibiotic resistance of enterococci from food and the gastro-intestinal tract. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 88:123131.
89. Kreft, B.,, R. Marre,, U. Schramm,, and R. Wirth. 1992. Aggregation substance of Enterococcus faecalis mediates adhesion to cultured renal tubular cells. Infect. Immun. 60:2530.
90. Landry, S. L.,, D. L. Kaiser,, and R. P. Wenzel. 1989. Hospital stay and mortality attributed to nosocomial enterococcal bacteremia: a controlled study. Am. J. Infect. Control 17: 323329.
91. Laukova, A.,, S. Czikkova,, S. Laczkova,, and P. Turek. 1999. Use of enterocin CCM 4231 to control Listeria monocytogenes in experimentally contaminated dry fermented Hornad salami. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 52:115119.
92. Lautenbach, E.,, W. B. Bilker,, and P. J. Brennan. 1999. Enterococcal bacteremia: risk factors for vancomycin resistance and predictors of mortality. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 20: 318323.
93. Leavis, H.,, J. Top,, N. Shankar,, K. Borgen,, M. Bonten,, J. van Embden,, and R. J. Willems. 2004. A novel putative enterococcal pathogenicity island linked to the esp virulence gene of Enterococcus faecium and associated with epidemicity. J. Bacteriol. 186:672682.
94. Leclercq, R.,, E. Derlot,, J. Duval,, and P. Courvalin. 1988. Plasmid-mediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecium. N. Engl. J. Med. 319:157161.
95. Lester, C. H.,, N. Frimodt-Moller,, and A. M. Hammerum. 2004. Conjugal transfer of aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance between Enterococcus faecium isolates in the intestine of streptomycin-treated mice. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 235: 385391
96. Linden, P. K.,, A. W. Pasculle,, R. Manez,, D. J. Kramer,, J. J. Fung,, A. D. Pinna,, and S. Kusne. 1996. Differences in outcomes for patients with bacteremia due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium or vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:663670.
97. Loeb, M.,, S. Salama,, M. Armstrong-Evans,, G. Capretta,, and J. Olde. 1999. A case-control study to detect modifiable risk factors for colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 20:760763.
98. Mac, K.,, H. Wichmann-Schauer,, J. Peters,, and L. Ellerbroek. 2003. Species identification and detection of vancomycin resistance genes in enterococci of animal origin by multiplex PCR. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 88:305309.
99. Makinen, P. L.,, D. B. Clewell,, F. An,, and K. K. Makinen. 1989. Purification and substrate specificity of a strongly hydrophobic extracellular metalloendopeptidase (“gelatinase”) from Streptococcus faecalis (strain 0G1-10). J. Biol. Chem. 264:33253334.
100. Malani, P. N.,, C. A. Kauffman,, and M. J. Zervos,. 2002. Enterococcal disease, epidemiology, and treatment, p. 385408. In M. S. Gilmore,, D. B. Clewell,, P. Courvalin,, G. M. Dunny,, B. E. Murray,, and L. B. Rice (ed.), The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
101. Malone, D. A.,, R. A. Wagner,, J. P. Myers,, and C. Watanakunakorn. 1986. Enterococcal bacteremia in two large community teaching hospitals. Am. J. Med. 81:601606.
102. Mannu, L.,, A. Paba,, E. Daga,, R. Comunian,, S. Zanetti,, I. Dupre,, and L. A. Sechi. 2003. Comparison of the incidence of virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance between Enterococcus faecium strains of dairy, animal and clinical origin. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 88:291304.
103. Martel, A.,, L. A. Devriese,, A. Decostere,, and F. Haesebrouck. 2003. Presence of macrolide resistance genes in streptococci and enterococci isolated from pigs and pork carcasses. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 84:2732.
104. Mayhall, C. G. 1999. The epidemiology and control of VRE: still struggling to come of age. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 20:650652.
105. McDonald, L. C.,, S. Rossiter,, C. Mackinson,, Y. Y. Wang,, S. Johnson,, M. Sullivan,, R. Sokolow,, E. Debess,, L. Gilbert,, J. A. Benson,, B. Hill,, and F. J. Angulo. 2001. Quinupristindalfopristin- resistant Enterococcus faecium on chicken and in human stool specimens. N. Engl. J. Med. 345:11551160.
106. McNicholas, P. M.,, D. J. Najarian,, P. A. Mann,, D. Hesk,, R. S. Hare,, K. J. Shaw,, and T. A. Black. 2000. Evernimicin binds exclusively to the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits translation in cell-free systems derived from both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:11211126.
107. Moellering, R. C., 2000. Enterococcus species, Streptococcus bovis, and Leuconostoc species, p. 21472152. In D. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, Pa..
108. Moellering, R. C.,, P. K. Linden,, J. Reinhardt,, E. A. Blumberg,, F. Bompart,, and G. H. Talbot. 1999. The efficacy and safety of quinupristin/dalfopristin for the treatment of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Synercid Emergency-Use Study Group. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 44:251261.
109. Montecalvo, M. A.,, H. Horowitz,, C. Gedris,, C. Carbonaro,, F. C. Tenover,, A. Issah,, P. Cook,, and G. P. Wormser. 1994. Outbreak of vancomycin-, ampicillin-, and aminoglycoside-resistant Enterococcus faecium bacteremia in an adult oncology unit. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:13631367.
110. Montecalvo, M. A.,, D. K. Shay,, P. Patel,, L. Tacsa,, S. A. Maloney,, W. R. Jarvis,, and G. P. Wormser. 1996. Bloodstream infections with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Arch. Intern. Med. 156:14581462.
111. Moubareck, C.,, N. Bourgeois,, P. Courvalin,, and F. Doucet- Populaire. 2003. Multiple antibiotic resistance gene transfer from animal to human enterococci in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 29932996.
112. Mundy, L. M.,, D. F. Sahm,, and M. Gilmore. 2000. Relationships between enterococcal virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:513522.
113. Oprea, S. F.,, N. Zaidi,, S. M. Donabedian,, M. Balasubramaniam,, E. Hershberger,, and M. J. Zervos. 2004. Molecular and clinical epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53:626630.
114. Paulsen, I. T.,, L. Banerjei,, G. S. Myers,, K. E. Nelson,, R. Seshadri,, T. D. Read,, D. E. Fouts,, J. A. Eisen,, S. R. Gill,, J. F. Heidelberg,, H. Tettelin,, R. J. Dodson,, L. Umayam,, L. Brinkac,, M. Beanan,, S. Daugherty,, R. T. DeBoy,, S. Durkin,, J. Kolonay,, R. Madupu,, W. Nelson,, J. Vamathevan,, B. Tran,, J. Upton,, T. Hansen,, J. Shetty,, H. Khouri,, T. Utterback,, D. Radune,, K. A. Ketchum,, B. A. Dougherty,, and C. M. Fraser. 2003. Role of mobile DNA in the evolution of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Science 299:20712074.
115. Pfaller, M. A.,, R. N. Jones,, S. A. Marshall,, M. B. Edmond,, and R. P. Wenzel. 1997. Nosocomial streptococcal blood stream infections in the SCOPE Program: species occurrence and antimicrobial resistance. The SCOPE Hospital Study Group. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 29:259263.
116. Quednau, M.,, S. Ahrne,, A. C. Petersson,, and G. Molin. 1998. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Enterococcus isolated from Swedish and Danish retailed chicken and pork. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84:11631170.
117. Rice, E. W.,, L. A. Boczek,, C. H. Johnson,, and J. W. Messer. 2003. Detection of intrinsic vancomycin resistant enterococci in animal and human feces. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.46:155158.
118. Rice, E. W.,, J. W. Messer,, C. H. Johnson,, and D. J. Reasoner. 1995. Occurrence of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in environmental isolates of enterococci. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:374376.
119. Rice, L. B.,, L. Carias,, S. Rudin,, C. Vael,, H. Goossens,, C. Konstabel,, I. Klare,, S. R. Nallapareddy,, W. Huang,, and B. E. Murray. 2003. A potential virulence gene, hylEfm, predominates in Enterococcus faecium of clinical origin. J. Infect. Dis. 187:508512.
120. Riemann, H.,, and F. L. Bryan. 1979. Foodborne Infections and Intoxications. Academic Press, Inc., New York, N. Y.
121. Rimailho, A.,, E. Lampl,, B. Riou,, C. Richard,, E. Rottman,, and P. Auzepy. 1988. Enterococcal bacteremia in a medical intensive care unit. Crit. Care Med. 16:126129.
122. Rogers, D. G.,, D. H. Zeman,, and E. D. Erickson. 1992. Diarrhea associated with Enterococcus durans in calves. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 4:471472.
123. Rollins, L. D.,, L. N. Lee,, and D. J. LeBlanc. 1985. Evidence for a disseminated erythromycin resistance determinant mediated by Tn917-like sequences among group D streptococci isolated from pigs, chickens, and humans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27:439444.
124. Ronconi, M. C.,, L. A. Merino,, and G. Fernandez. 2002. Detection of Enterococcus with high-level aminoglycoside and glycopeptide resistance in Lactuca sativa (lettuce). Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin. 20:380383.
125. Rosan, B.,, and N. B. Williams. 1964. Hyaluronidase production by oral enterococci. Arch. Oral Biol. 11:291298.
126. Shankar, N.,, P. Coburn,, C. Pillar,, W. Haas,, and M. Gilmore. 2004. Enterococcal cytolysin: activities and association with other virulence traits in a pathogenicity island. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 293:609618.
127. Shlaes, D. M.,, J. Levy,, and E. Wolinsky. 1981. Enterococcal bacteremia without endocarditis. Arch. Intern. Med. 141:578581.
128. Simjee, S.,, P. F. McDermott,, D. D. Wagner,, and D. G. White. 2001. Variation within the vat(E) allele of Enterococcus faecium isolates from retail poultry samples. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:29312932.
129. Simjee, S.,, D. G. White,, P. F. McDermott,, D. D. Wagner,, M. J. Zervos,, S. M. Donabedian,, L. L. English,, J. R. Hayes,, and R. D. Walker. 2002. Characterization of Tn1546 in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from canine urinary tract infections: evidence of gene exchange between human and animal enterococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:46594665.
130. Simjee, S.,, D. G. White,, J. Meng,, D. D. Wagner,, S. Qaiyumi,, S. Zhao,, J. R. Hayes,, and P. F. McDermott. 2002. Prevalence of streptogramin resistance genes among Enterococcus isolates recovered from retail meats in the Greater Washington DC area. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 50:877882.
131.Reference deleted.
132. Simjee, S.,, D. G. White,, D. D. Wagner,, J. Meng,, S. Qaiyumi,, S. Zhao,, and P. F. McDermott. 2002. Identification of vat(E) in Enterococcus faecalis isolates from retail poultry and its transferability to Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:38233828.
133.Reference deleted.
134. Singh, K. V.,, T. M. Coque,, G. M. Weinstock,, and B. E. Murray. 1998. In vivo testing of an Enterococcus faecalis efaA mutant and use of efaA homologs for species identification. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 21:323331.
135. Soltani, M.,, D. Beighton,, J. Philpott-Howard,, and N. Woodford. 2000. Mechanisms of resistance to quinupristindalfopristin among isolates of Enterococcus faecium from animals, raw meat, and hospital patients in Western Europe. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:433436.
136.Reference deleted.
137. Son, R.,, F. Nimita,, G. Rusul,, E. Nasreldin,, L. Samuel,, and M. Nishibuchi. 1999. Isolation and molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Malaysia. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 29:118122.
138. Stiles, M. E., 1989. Less recognized or presumptive food-borne pathogenic bacteria, p. 674735. In M. P. Doyle (ed.), Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y.
139. Su, Y. A.,, M. C. Sulavik,, P. He,, K. K. Makinen,, P. L. Makinen,, S. Fiedler,, R. Wirth,, and D. B. Clewell. 1991. Nucleotide sequence of the gelatinase gene (gelE) from Enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens. Infect. Immun. 59:415420.
140. Tannock, G. W.,, and G. Cook,. 2002. Enterococci as members of the intestinal microflora of humans, p. 101132. In M. S. Gilmore,, D. B. Clewell,, P. Courvalin,, G. M. Dunny,, B. E. Murray,, and L. B. Rice (ed.), The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
141. Teixeira, L. M.,, and R. R. Facklam,. 2003. Enterococcus, p. 422429. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and H. Y. Yolker (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
142. Tenover, F. C.,, L. M. Weigel,, P. C. Appelbaum,, L. K. McDougal,, J. Chaitram,, S. McAllister,, N. Clark,, G. Killgore,, C. M. O’Hara,, L. Jevitt,, J. B. Patel,, and B. Bozdogan. 2004. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate from a patient in Pennsylvania. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:275280.
143. Teuber, M.,, F. Schwarz,, and V. Perreten. 2003. Molecular structure and evolution of the conjugative multiresistance plasmid pRE25 of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from a raw-fermented sausage. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 88:325329.
144. Thal, L. A.,, J. W. Chow,, R. Mahayni,, H. Bonilla,, M. B. Perri,, S. A. Donabedian,, J. Silverman,, S. Taber,, and M. J. Zervos. 1995. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci of animal origin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:21122115.
145.Reference deleted.
146. Tornieporth, N. G.,, R. B. Roberts,, J. John,, A. Hafner,, and L. W. Riley. 1996. Risk factors associated with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infection or colonization in 145 matched case patients and control patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:767772.
147. Vancanneyt, M.,, C. Snauwaert,, I. Cleenwerck,, M. Baele,, P. Descheemaeker,, H. Goossens,, B. Pot,, P. Vandamme,, J. Swings,, F. Haesebrouck,, and L. A. Devriese. 2001. Enterococcus villorum sp. nov., an enteroadherent bacterium associated with diarrhoea in piglets. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:393400.
148. van den Bogaard, A. E.,, N. Bruinsma,, and E. E. Stobberingh. 2000. The effect of banning avoparcin on VRE carriage in The Netherlands. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46:146148.
149. van den Bogaard, A. E.,, L. B. Jensen,, and E. E. Stobberingh. 1997. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in turkeys and farmers. N. Engl. J. Med. 337:15581559.
150. van den Bogaard, A. E.,, N. London,, and E. E. Stobberingh. 2000. Antimicrobial resistance in pig faecal samples from the Netherlands (five abattoirs) and Sweden. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 45:663671.
151. van den Bogaard, A. E.,, R. Willems,, N. London,, J. Top,, and E. E. Stobberingh. 2002. Antibiotic resistance of faecal enterococci in poultry, poultry farmers and poultry slaughterers. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49:497505.
152. Vankerckhoven, V.,, T. Van Autgaerden,, C. Vael,, C. Lammens,, S. Chapelle,, R. Rossi,, D. Jabes,, and H. Goossens. 2004. Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of Enterococcus faecium. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:44734479.
153. Vergis, E. N.,, M. K. Hayden,, J. W. Chow,, D. R. Snydman,, M. J. Zervos,, P. K. Linden,, M. M. Wagener,, B. Schmitt,, and R. R. Muder. 2001. Determinants of vancomycin resistance and mortality rates in enterococcal bacteremia. a prospective multicenter study. Ann. Intern. Med. 135:484492.
154. Weinstein, M. P.,, J. R. Murphy,, L. B. Reller,, and K. A. Lichtenstein. 1983. The clinical significance of positive blood cultures: a comprehensive analysis of 500 episodes of bacteremia and fungemia in adults. II. Clinical observations, with special reference to factors influencing prognosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5:5470.
155. Werner, G.,, B. Hildebrandt,, and W. Witte. 2001. Aminoglycoside-streptothricin resistance gene cluster aadEsat4- aphA-3 disseminated among multiresistant isolates of Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:32673269.
156. Werner, G.,, B. Hildebrandt,, and W. Witte. 2001. The newly described msrC gene is not equally distributed among all isolates of Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:36723673.
157. Werner, G.,, B. Hildebrandt,, and W. Witte. 2003. Linkage of erm(B) and aadE-sat4-aphA-3 in multiple-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates of different ecological origins. Microb. Drug Resist. 9(Supp. 1):S9S16.
158. Werner, G.,, I. Klare,, H. Heier,, K. H. Hinz,, G. Bohme,, M. Wendt,, and W. Witte. 2000. Quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant enterococci of the satA (vatD) and satG (vatE) genotypes from different ecological origins in Germany. Microb. Drug Resist. 6:3747.
159. Werner, G.,, B. Strommenger,, I. Klare,, and W. Witte. 2004. Molecular detection of linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis by use of 5'nuclease realtime PCR compared to a modified classical approach. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:53275331.
160. Woodford, N.,, A. M. Adebiyi,, M. F. Palepou,, and B. D. Cookson. 1998. Diversity of VanA glycopeptide resistance elements in enterococci from humans and nonhuman sources. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:502508.
161. Woodford, N.,, M. Soltani,, and K. J. Hardy. 2001. Frequency of esp in Enterococcus faecium isolates. Lancet 358:584.
162.World Health Organization. 1994. WHO Scientific Working Group on monitoring and management of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
163. Zervos, M. J.,, C. A. Kauffman,, P. M. Therasse,, A. G. Bergman,, T. S. Mikesell,, and D. R. Schaberg. 1987. Nosocomial infection by gentamicin-resistant Streptococcus faecalis. An epidemiologic study. Ann. Intern. Med. 106:687691.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Phenotypic characteristics used for identification of Enterococcus species

Citation: Simjee S, Jensen L, Donabedian S, Zervos M. 2006. Enterococcus, p 315-328. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch18
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Function of the enterococcal virulence factors

Citation: Simjee S, Jensen L, Donabedian S, Zervos M. 2006. Enterococcus, p 315-328. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch18
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Antimicrobial resistance genes in enterococci of animal origin

Citation: Simjee S, Jensen L, Donabedian S, Zervos M. 2006. Enterococcus, p 315-328. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch18

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error