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Chapter 2 : History of Antimicrobial Usage in Agriculture: an Overview

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History of Antimicrobial Usage in Agriculture: an Overview, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The introduction of antimicrobial drugs into agriculture shortly after the Second World War caused a revolution in the treatment of many diseases of food animals. A broad overview of key features of the history of antimicrobial drug usage in food animals is given, which traces developments from the preantibiotic era to the present day, where there are highly arguable fears that we are moving into the "postantibiotic" era. The majority of antimicrobial drugs used in animals belong to a small number of major classes, and only one new class of antimicrobial drugs, fluoroquinolones has been introduced for food animal use in the last 30 years. Improvements in understanding of the microbiology of infectious diseases acquired from animals were less important, but also critical, forces in the reexamination of antimicrobial usage in agriculture. Ready access to the ‘’miracle drugs’’ by medicine and agriculture, coupled with the ability of chemists to alter existing drugs or develop new ones to counter resistance, led to the expectation that the preantibiotic era was to become a folk memory marked only on mossy gravestones. The new technologies of recombinant DNA, diagnostic DNA microarrays, genomics, proteomics, and combinatorial chemistry hold considerable promise for the development of new, possibly pathogen-targeted, antimicrobial drugs.

Citation: Prescott J. 2006. History of Antimicrobial Usage in Agriculture: an Overview, p 19-28. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch2

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Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
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Salmonella enterica
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Figures

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Figure 1

Routes of exchange of between animals and humans. Note the areas where antimicrobial drug selection for resistance is most likely. The size of the circles or boxes does not indicate the extent of the scale of the movement. **, high antibiotic selection pressure. Adapted from reference 13, as modified by R. Irwin; reproduced with permission.

Citation: Prescott J. 2006. History of Antimicrobial Usage in Agriculture: an Overview, p 19-28. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch2
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References

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1. Aarestrup, F. M.,, A. M. Seyfarth,, H. D. Emborg,, K. Pedersen,, R. S. Hendriksen,, and F. Bager. 2001. Effect of abolishment of the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion on occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal enterococci from food animals in Denmark. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:20542059.
2. Anderson, E. S. 1968. Drug resistance in Salmonella typhimurium and its implications. Br. Med. J. 3:333339.
3. Bager, F.,, M. Madsen,, J. Christensen,, and F. M. Aarestrup. 1997. Avoparcin used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on Danish poultry and pig farms. Prev. Vet. Med. 31:95112.
4. Bateman, K. G., 2000. Antimicrobial drug use in cattle, p. 576590. In J. F. Prescott,, J. D. Baggot,, and R. D. Walker (ed.), Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine, 3rd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
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8. Friendship, R. M., 2000. Antimicrobial drug use in swine. p. 602611. In J. F. Prescott,, J. D. Baggot,, and R. D. Walker (ed.), Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine, 3rd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
9. Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162:12431248.
10. Hussar, A. E.,, and H. W. Holley. 1954. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Therapy. MacMillan, New York, N. Y.
11. Jensen, L. B.,, A. M. Hammerum,, R. L. Poulsen,, and H. Westh. 1999. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains with highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns containing similar Tn1546-like elements isolated from a hospitalized patient and pigs in Denmark. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:724725.
12. Klare, I.,, D. Badstubner,, C. Konstabel,, G. Bohme,, H. Claus,, and W. Witte. 1999. Decreased incidence of VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from poultry meat and from fecal samples of humans in the community after discontinuation of avoparcin usage in animal husbandry. Microb. Drug Resist. 5:4552.
13. Linton, A. H. 1977. Antibiotic resistance: the present situation reviewed. Vet. Rec. 100:354360.
14. Little, R. B.,, C. S. Bryan,, W. E. Petersen,, W. N. Plastridge,, and O. W. Schalm. 1946. The intramammary therapy of bovine mastitis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 108:127135.
15. Piddock, L. J.,, V. Ricci,, L. Pumbwe,, M. J. Everett,, and D. J. Griggs. 2003. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter species from man and animals: detection of mutations in topoisomerase genes. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51:1926.
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19. Smith, K. E.,, J. M. Besser,, C. W. Hedberg,, F. T. Leano,, J. B. Bender,, J. H. Wicklund,, B. P. Johnson,, K. A. Moore,, and M. T. Osterholm. 1999. Quinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections in Minnesota, 1992-1998. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:15251532.
20. Spika, J. S.,, S. H. Waterman,, G. W. Hoo,, M. E. St. Louis, R. E. Pacer, S. M. James, M. L. Bissett, L. W. Mayer, J. Y. Chiu, B. Hall, et al. 1987. Chloramphenicol-resistant Salmonella newport traced through hamburger to dairy farms. A major persisting source of human salmonellosis in California. N. Engl. J. Med. 316:565570.
21. Wierup, M. 2001. The Swedish experience of the 1986 year ban of antimicrobial growth promoters, with special reference to animal health, disease prevention, productivity, and usage of antimicrobials. Microb. Drug Resist. 7:183190.
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Tables

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Table 1

Historical timeline of important events and trends in use of antimicrobial drugs in food animals

Citation: Prescott J. 2006. History of Antimicrobial Usage in Agriculture: an Overview, p 19-28. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 2

Historical timeline of major reports and their conclusions or recommendations relating to the public health aspects of antimicrobial drug use in food animals

Citation: Prescott J. 2006. History of Antimicrobial Usage in Agriculture: an Overview, p 19-28. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch2

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