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Chapter 22 : Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications

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Abstract:

This chapter evaluates the usefulness and limitations of the various sources of input data, discusses how usage should be expressed in order to comply with the various purposes of monitoring, and presents examples on the application of data obtained through various monitoring programs. Data on antimicrobial drug usage collected from veterinarians and farmers may give information about dosage schemes and usage per species, per age group, by indication, and at herd level. Data on antimicrobial drug usage could also be collected by the use of questionnaires to veterinarians or farmers. Ideally, all antimicrobial ingredients and classes of antimicrobials used in animals should be included in a monitoring program on antimicrobial drug usage. Conversion of aggregate usage data to defined daily dose (DDD) may thereby create over- or underestimates of usage. The prescribed daily doses (PDDs) for veterinary antimicrobials may be calculated from prescriptions, questionnaires, or information obtained from veterinarians’ invoices. Usage of antimicrobials in selected food producing animal species should, if possible, be calculated to express doses per number of animal species and per age group, e.g., weaning pigs. In order to examine the selective pressure exerted by the various antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) or coccidiostat feed additives (CFAs), the proportional use of the different feed additives may be expressed as amounts of feed (in weight) containing an AGP or a CFA per 1,000 animals per time period.

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Proportional use of veterinary antimicrobials in pigs in 2003 expressed as ADDkg and as weight of active substance. “Others” category includes cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and amphenicols. Data are derived from VetStat (42). Figure developed by Vibeke Frøkjær Jensen.

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Percent changes in sales of antimicrobial drugs for pig production in Denmark, as measured in ADDkg per pig produced and in weight of active substance. Data are derived from VetStat (42). Figure developed by Vibeke Frøkjær Jensen.

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Calculated treatment rates (number of course doses sold/number of animals liable to be treated) of mastitis in dairy cattle versus reported treatment rates (r 2 = 0.986) in Norway. Data on treatment rates are derived from the annual reports of the Norwegian Cattle Health Service, which comprise on average 90% of dairy cattle in Norway; data on antimicrobial drug sales were obtained from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Figure developed by Kari Grave.

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
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Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Calculated annual biomass of farmed salmonids treated with one course dose of an antibacterial drug versus biomass of farmed salmonids slaughtered annually in Norway. Sales data for antimicrobials represent sales from feed mills and wholesalers; data on amounts of farmed fish slaughtered are derived from Statistics Norway. *, data on slaughtered amounts not published because they were not assumed to be valid. Figure developed by Kari Grave.

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
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Image of Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Sales, in kilograms of active substance, of veterinary antimicrobial drugs in Norway in the period from 1993 to 2003. In Norway veterinary drugs are sold only through pharmacies supplied by wholesalers. Sales data represent sales from wholesalers to Norwegian pharmacies and were obtained from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Antimicrobial drug formulations approved exclusively for farmed fish or pets are not included. Figure developed by Kari Grave.

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
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Image of Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Usage in Sweden of AGPs and therapeutic antimicrobials in the period from 1980 to 2003. Data for 1980 to 1995 are derived from the Swedish Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring program and reference 1. Figure developed by Kari Grave.

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
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Image of Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Usage (in metric tons) in Denmark of AGPs and therapeutic antimicrobials in the period from 1994 to 2003. Data are derived from the Danish monitoring program DANMAP (11). Data for 1995 are not published because they are not thought to be valid. Figure developed by Vibeke Frøkjær Jensen.

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
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Image of Figure 8.
Figure 8.

Figure 8. Usage of antimicrobial drugs in pig production in Denmark, expressed as ADD per head (“heads” refers to the number of animals liable to be treated). Data are derived from VetStat (42). Figure developed by Vibeke Frøkjær Jensen.

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Expression and application of overall national sales data on veterinary AMs derived from various sources a

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Expression and application of stratified data on veterinary AM usage in animals derived from pharmacies, feed mills, veterinarians, and/or farmers a

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Usage of antimicrobials in Denmark a

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Usage in Denmark of antimicrobials in pigs a

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Continuous national monitoring programs on antimicrobial (AM) usage in nimals a

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Sales, as percentages of total sales in weight of active substance, of veterinary antimicrobial drugs or derived from the most recent surveillance program reports in various countries a

Citation: Grave K, Frøkjær Jensen V, McEwen S, Kruse H. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications, p 375-396. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch22

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