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Chapter 23 : Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals: Principles and Practices

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Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals: Principles and Practices, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter reviews information relevant to the design and scope of antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance programs for animals and food, with emphasis on program purposes and methods. The chapter describes some of the essential features of existing monitoring and surveillance programs in various countries around the world. It shows how these programs have been useful in improving understanding of resistance and its relation to antimicrobial use and other factors, guiding public policy, and measuring the impact of interventions on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from animals, food, and humans. The major methodological considerations for the monitoring program include the types of samples to be collected, sampling strategies, species of bacteria, antimicrobials for susceptibility testing, data collection and analysis, and reporting of results. Comprehensive monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in animals in the context of animal and human health covers the entire farm-to-fork continuum. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) has been active in developing new approaches for the preapproval assessment of antimicrobial resistance risks from antimicrobials used in animals. The Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring (JVARM) program examines the susceptibility of bacteria from food-producing animals to antimicrobial agents. Most programs focus on pathogenic bacteria or , but some also report data on resistance in indicator bacteria isolated from healthy animals. Knowledge about antimicrobial resistance should be combined with knowledge regarding the usage of antimicrobial agents for different food animal species, which also should be performed on an internationally comparable basis.

Citation: McEwen S, Aarestrup F, Jordan D. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals: Principles and Practices, p 397-414. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch23

Key Concept Ranking

Antimicrobial Resistance
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Animal Pathogenic Bacteria
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Urinary Tract Infections
0.4222886
Extended Spectrum Penicillins
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Figures

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Figure 1.

Annual prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in and isolated from Danish pigs and broilers and consumption of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion, 1995 to 2003.

Citation: McEwen S, Aarestrup F, Jordan D. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals: Principles and Practices, p 397-414. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch23
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Purposes of antimicrobial resistance monitoring and implications for design, analysis, and reporting

Citation: McEwen S, Aarestrup F, Jordan D. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals: Principles and Practices, p 397-414. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch23
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Antimicrobial agents used for susceptibility testing in the DANMAP program

Citation: McEwen S, Aarestrup F, Jordan D. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals: Principles and Practices, p 397-414. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch23
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Summary of antimicrobial resistance monitoring programs in various countries

Citation: McEwen S, Aarestrup F, Jordan D. 2006. Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals: Principles and Practices, p 397-414. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch23

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